A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF THE MANAGEMENT PARALEL TO EMPLOYEES BEHAVIOR OF MANAGEMENT AT SELECTED LEVELS IN THE ORGANIZATIONS AS PERCEIVED BY THEMSELVES AND MANAGEMENT A Dissertation Presented to The Faculty of the Graduate School of Management Madison University _________________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Management ______________________ By Veronica A-Roberson March 20, 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v VITA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi Chapter I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 6 Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 7 Limitations of the Study Organization of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Management Defined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Therories OF Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Situational Therories 26 Management Behavior Theories Interactional Therories 47 Perceptions 63 III. METHODOLOGY 65 Design 65 Subjects 66 Population 66 Sample 66 Instrument 68 Reliablility 72 Validity 76 Hypotheses 79 Procedure 80 Data Analysis 82 IV. Findings 87 Overview 87 Section One 89 Section Two 94 Section Three 102 Section Four 105 Section Five 107 Section Six 111 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 112 Overview 112 Summary 114 Purpose and Significance of the Study 115 Procedure of the Study 116 Findings of the Study 117 Conclusions 127 Recommendations 127 References 142 Appendices 152 A. Statement of Policy from California State University of Dominquez Hills Granting Permission 153 B. Managers Behavior Description Questionnaire 154 C. Modified Version of the Managers Behavior Description Questionnaire 155 D. Scoring Key 166 E. Interview Guide 168 F. Cover Letters 170 G. Biographical Information Sheet 173 H. Subscale Means and Standard Deviations 175 This dissertation, written by Veronica A-Roberson Under the guidance of a Faculty Committee, the proposal has been submitted to Graduate Faculty as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF MANAGEMENT Date 3-20-03 Faculty Committee DR. M. R Mousighi Chairman Preface Within the preface of this dissertation , Organizations are composed of individuals. In order to operate an organization with proficient. The skills of the staff within the organization must be horned. Organizational communication has become an important area of concern in both management and employee satisfaction in business as a whole. University, for example, communication and business programs are essential to a thriving organization. You take university, they are the proto type of future organizations, their position is to put management programs in place as well as train student to full fill position throughout the business system. Systems of organizations are bridged together inadvertantly, they are salient to the survival of their counterpart. The field of business has increased in important. The ability to communicate within an organization is one of the major attributes that an individual can acquire. Success in the organization demands good communication. Organizations are changing at such a rapid rate that management must adjust and mediate within the organizational environment through communication. The most critical factor in organizational effectiveness remains the individual who has developed skills in communication. Unlike other organizational communication, this information will focus on individual behavior rather than on organizational structure. The information will deal with how individuals should communicate. However, the material will touch on how important contexts of good management skills are in efficient communication. Nonetheless the stress is on the individual communicating effectively within those contexts. While the individual must understand the relevant dimensions of organizational life. My endeavor is to assist employees in understanding the communication requirements associated with those dimensions. Examples and illustration drawn from daily bureaucratic life. Each segment has three cases that present real situation as case studies. The cases are followed by guideline for analysis that provide a structure for review and discussion the cases, along with the practical examples within each segment, are intended to enable the viewer to apply the content material to "real life" organizations. The organization or this material is as follows. Part one introduces the reader to communication and to organizations. A new chapter dealing with recent developments in management theory has been included in part one. In part two, communication is separated in specific person-to-person skills: listening, interviewing, participating in small groups, and managing through leadership, part three develops the planning and leader processes that are the foundation for effective public communication. Written communication is the focus on part four. Part five deals with improving communication through training, as one who has observed the field for several years, the importance of feedback and recognition, and the growth of technology in the workplace is astounding. Much of what I know about management within the organization has been hands on, working within the infra structure. MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Chapter 1 What an Organization Is An organization is a social system established to carry out a purpose. It consists of a number of people in a pattern of relationships. The pattern is not entirely dependent on a particular person who belong to the organization at a given time. The organization assigns a position to each of its members, and the incumbent of a position has a set part to play in the organization's concert. Every organization has a program and a set of planned activities that can go well or badly. If they consistently go well, the organization thrives. If theygo badly, it disappears or is restructured for another try. The manager of an organization is the person who has the primary responsibility for making its activities go well. An organization a program always involves considerably more than one central activity. Whether the central activity is a production process, a game, a fight or a ceremony, the organization must also maintain its internal structure, keep its employees happy, and adapt to changes in the external environment. In addition, the manager of any organization has a personal problem of establishing authority, In discussing problems, we will view the situation first, since unless the manager can keep the right to manage, the other parts of the managerial assignment quickly become irrelevant. The first chapter is about understanding Organizations and their synergistic affect on one another. It does the organization little good, however, for the manager to establish authority unless that authority is used to hold the organization together and achieve its purposes. Holding the organization together does not imply that all employees of the organization will have identical goals and agree about how to achieve them, but it does require them to agree sufficiently for the organization to pursue its collective goals in a unified way. This limited agreement results from continuous communication up. Down, and sideways within the organization. Most of this communication foows through established channels, formal or informal, and is modified in predictable ways by these channels. All this is discussed in the second chapter, "Communication." However, communication is not an end in itself. It is a means of getting the organization's job done, which is of course, what management is all about. A manager is someone who supervises the work of others and can, by his or her own actions, increase or diminish their productivity. In practice, there are two quite different modes of supervision direct and indirect, and they call for somewhat different strategies. In addition to the problem of routine supervision, there are all sorts of special problems that appear in any division of labor and interfere with the efficiency or the effictiveness of a work group. These situations are considered in the productivity area. The belief that productivity and morale are necessarily correlated is part of the folklore of organization. Like most folklore, it contains a grain of truth, Sudden increases in productivity are likely to stimulate short-ter improvements of morale, and vice versa. But the general relationship between productivity and morale is more complex. As empirical studies in diverse types of organization have shown, high morale often accompanies low productivity, and crises of morale may be brought about by rising productivity. There is always some significant relationship be tween the output of and organization and emotions of its members, but the relationship is for too intricate to suggest that productivity and morale are interchangeable. The managerial policies that sustain morale are decribed in "Morale." No organization, however limited its goals, can safely ignore the larger social systems from which it draws its people and its resources. Every organization endeavors to control the external environment, but no matter how large, rich, or sacred it becomes, it cannot develop any real immunity to changes in the external environment. Some of these external changes are attributable to the organization's own activities; some results from long-term trends and can be anticipated in a general way; some are so surprising that they cannot be imagined until they have actually occurred. In a complex, modern society, this last category is nearly inexhaustible. The unanticipated effects of legislation, technology, political upheavals, moral fashions, migration and other forms of mobility; innovations in transportation communication, entertainment; the movement of prices, and the fluctuation of scarcities now guarantee a fairly adventurous history to even the most insulated and reclusive organizations, such as craft union and boarding schools. The problems that arise s this way cannot be as neatly resolved as some of those discussed other arenas. Management Principles All human organizations resemble each other so closely that much of what is learned by managing one organization can be applied to managing any other organization. Every organization, for example, has a collective identity; a roster of employees, friends, and antagonists; a program activity and a schedule time to go with it ; a table or organization; a set of formal rules partly contradicted by informal rules; procedures for adding and removing members; utilitarian objects used for organizational tasks; symbolic objects used in organizational rituals; a history; a special vocabulary; some elements of folklore; a territory; and a method of placing members within that territory according to their relative importance. Every organization has a division of labor that allocates specialized tasks to it members and a status order that awards them unequal shares of authority, honor, and influence. Every organization except the very smallest is a cluster of sub-organizations of varying sizes, which are organizations in their own right and have all of the features stated above. Some sub-organizations are departments of the parent organization; some are illegitimate factions of it; some are formally independent of it, like a union local in a factory or attached to it temporarily, like an orchestra hired for a club dance. The important thing to remember about sub-organizations is that their goals are never completely compatible with the goals of the parent organization. It is seldom possible to reform a sub-organization for the benefit of the parent organization without encountering resistance. On the other hand, it is quite impossible to manage a large organization without occasional offendin, damaging, or destroying some of its sub-organizations. The problemof managing a large organization are similar to the problems of managing a large organization are similar to the problems of managing a small or medium-sized organization, if only because every large organization is run by a managerial oligarchy which is itself a small organization there isno other way to do it. Problems of communication, data retrieval, and public relations are necessarily more complex in a large organization, but there are more people to help with them too. Running a large organization should not require more of your time and effort than running a small organization. If it does, something is probably wrong with the way your job is set up or with you personal style. During any given interval in an organization's history, it will be growing, stable, or declining. Some organizations. Such as business corporations, normally strive for growth but do not always achieve it. Somne, such as exclusive clubs, attempt to avoid either growth or decline. Other, such as legislatures and baseball teams, have a fexed numer of member although the number of assistants and and supernumeraries can vary. Sill other, such as social movements past their peak, continue to operate for long periods of time while decling in size. The task of management is easiest in a growing organization because growth itself whatever its real cause is usually viewed as a sign of managerial success and because the input of new resources occasioned by growth can be used to pay for mistakes. Managing a stable organization is a more difficult task and calls for a finer adjustment of means and ends. Careful decision-making, and alertness to the external environment. The management of a declinging organization may be easy or hare, depending upon whether the decline is regarded as inevitable. In the face of an inevitable decline, standards of managerial performance may be low. In the case of a decline that is regarded as reversible, the task of the manager is always difficult and sometimes impossible. Most organizations find it harder to satify one of their goal than others, for reason beyond their control, When this is the case, the manager's success with the critical goal is the thing that matters, while the achievement of other goals is overlooked or taken for granted. Maintaining authority is critical, for example, in a prison or penitentiary; maintaining employees is what counts in a civic association; as director of a summer camp you are judged almost exclusively by whether you can keep up morale; as coach of a football team that can win all its games you need not worry about much else. Every type of organization tends to develop managers who are overspecialized in the accomplishment of one assignment and who minimize their their other responsigilities until this neglect catches up with them in the shape of rebellion, schism, bankruptcy, or reform by outsiders.. Many organizations develop crises is a situation in which the priorities of management are forcibly rearranged by some unforeseen combination of circumstances. The qualities that you, as manager, are called upon to display in a crisis may be quite different from those routinely required. Our system is build up of many micro situation that mushroom into macro situation: College presidents are called on for personal courage, prison wardens are asked top show Christian charity, long-term planners are compelled to make snap decisions. Skill and luck play equal parts in the management of crisis. The skill can be practiced, but not the luck, so that why a few well-handled major crises may strengthen an organization and its leadership, a long series of crises will almost certainly ruin it. If you, as a manager, perceive your role as " putting out fires," then you are a poor manager and ought to be replaced by someone who attaches more importance to fire prevention. The fundamental procedures for preventing organizational crises are early detection and the rehearsal of drills that transform crises into routine problems. Not only does the crises transform our world and our envolvement with many organization, our world will be forever bridged to the many organizations we encounter daily. Understanding the Organization The question comes to mind as such for answers to theory x: are individuals motivated to work. Or instead, theory y: are individuals forced to work? Individuals are literally, forced to work in order to survived. A job enable individuals to live out the American dream. However, if given a chance to work from the vantage point of our strengths as well as our passion, everyone will be motivated to work, motivation stem from passion. I advocate that we find our passion and enjoy life's cycle, fortunately, because, for the rest of our lives, we will be involved with many types of organizations. Consider a day in the life of my daughter, Monica Williams, a young lady who could be your next-door neighbor. Monica's clock radio wakes her up with the latest news at 5 A. M. The news is being broadcast by a radio station organization. While Monica is pouring the milk in her oatmeal, she receives a telephone call, In using the telephone, Monica is interacting with a system developed and operated by a public utility organization. Monica realizes that she is running late, she dress hurriedly and dashes out to meet her car pool,., Designed to meet the needs of its members, the car pool is also an organization. Monica and her co-workers arrive on time at the hospital where they are employed. The hospital, too, is an organization. In fact, the hospital is really many organizations in one. Monica's department, quality control, functions very much like a small, self-contained organization… The hospital contains about hundreds of other departments that also function as separate organizations. All of these separate units, however, belong to the larger organization-the hospital. After a long day, eight hours in the hospital, Monica comes home in the car pool. She suggests to her husband that that they go out to a restaurant for dinner.. The restaurant is run as an organization that exists to feed its customers. After dinner Monica and her husband head for the bowling lanes, where their league is playing in a tournament. The bowling league is another organization created to serve the recreational needs of bowlers. Monica's league wins the tournament. They decide to celebrate by stopping by the local tavern for a bear. The tavern is another recreational organization. After the second bear, Monica's husband suggests that they go home to the kids. The Williams, operate as an organization. Any typical family functions very much like the many organizations Monica has been involved with, directly or indirectly, during her routine day. In almost every social encounter, we are influenced by one or more organization. Organizations enable us to achieve many of our goals. We earn our living, enjoy our recreation. Received an education and worship through organization. Nonetheless, we will focus on the communication behavior demonstrated by the employees of organization. How do individual communicate in the organization? What types of communication skills are important for effective participation in the organization? Communication may be defined as the sending and receiving of information among individual. It involves the spoken word and the written word as well as the nonverbal aspects of information sending. In considering three communication skills: speaking, writing, and listening. Firt, we will examine the nature of organizations and their impact upon humans. Second we will learn what organizations are. Next, we will discuss the thins that organizations have in commin. Finally, we will study the things that organizations routinely do. This treatment of the nature of organizations. Is intended to provide you with clear understanding of the way in which organizations operate. You need to know this before you can develop communication skills for the use of in organizations. WHAT ARE ORGANIZATIONS? Organizations are unique. In this part we are going to learn why. Let us examine some of the most important characteristics of the organization. To Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson communication would include: all of those processes by which people influence one another…this definition is based on the premise that all actions and events have communication aspects, as soon as they are perceived by a human being…and that such perception changes the information which an individual possesses and therefore influences him. Organizations are Dynamic Like human beings, organizations are dynamic. They are ongoing, ever-changing, constantly forced to meet new challenges, they are continual adapting to rapidly varying conditions in their environment. For example, consider the situation of the private liberal arts college in the United States. Private Colleges have traditionally b been identified as schools for the rich, on the other hand, public colleges and universities have been seen as middle-class schools, where families of moderate income could afford to send their children. However, as economic condition have changed, many private colleges have had to make drastic changes to stay in business. Costs associated with higher education have risen rapidly. Private colleges have tried to attract applications from less affluent students. They have suggested that the bright, capable, middle-class young student with some help from the family, a part-time job on campus, and a partial scholarship can probably afford to attend a private college, In short, they have had to appeal to new constituencies in order to survive. In addition, the public colleges, have found themselves enrolling many students from affluent families, because these families no longer had enough money to send their children to the best private colleges. As economic conditions fluctuate, the rules for these organizations have changed. To survive, they must be dynamic enough to adapt. Otherwise, they will probably find themselves out of business. There are three ways in which organization must remain dynamic, changing markets, changing technologies, and changing economy. Changing markets, Organizations must be dynamic enough to meet changing markets. Since most organizations market some type of product or service, they must be sensitive to their potential customers' changing attitudes and predispositions. If thered is no market for the organization's product or services the organization will not survive. Changing Technologies, For an organization to be successful, it must be able to accomplish a particular job. This job is called its task. The methods that an organization uses to accomplish its task are called technologies. Technologies change drastically over very brief periods of time. Consider the way in which and organization pays its employees. Up until a few years ago, payroll was a major job of the bookkeeping department. Numerous clerks and bookkeepers would work many hours to insure that payroll checks were properly recorded and dispersed. However, sophisticated programs now exist that enable an organization to disperse and record payroll by computer.. This frees many hours for employees to work on other task. Changing economy All organizations need financial resources to remain in business. Therefore, economic conditions are a crucial influence on the operations of the organization. Organizations must pay attention to almost every facet of the economy.. The availability of money for expansion, resources to use as raw materials, and the cost of labor all play an important role in the development of the organization. In or society, most things cost something. To be able to exist, the organization must be prepared to pay whatever it takes to stay in operation. The family organization that cannot meet its financial obligation must file for bankruptcy just like the large corporation in the same situation. Organizations must remain dynamic to adjust to changing financial conditions. Organizations informs Organizations are designed to inform. All organizations need information to survive. It is by exchanging information that one part of an organization learns about the duties and activities of another aspect of the organization. Organization can be thought of as information processing unit. Unfortunately, without exchanging information, organizations do not have the know-how to change raw materials into final products or services into what makes the individual or group survive the task. What exactly is meant by the phrase exchange of information? Consider the case of a typical college fraternity. This fraternity has a number of subgroups called standing committees. Each standing committee operates more or less autonomously. However, for the fraternity to function effectively, each standing committee must share its information with the others. This can be done in several ways.. Perhaps all of the chairs have a weekly meeting to report on their respective committees' activities. Perhaps information is transferred during the regular fraternity meetings. Perhaps the committee members compare notes informally during class and at other fraternity activities. As the standing committees share information, support, and complete with each other, important relationships develop among them. Without these relationships among subgroups, organizations cannot be successful. The maintenance of these relationships depends on the mutual exchange of information. It is equally important for the organization to obtain information from its environment. Important events that occur outside are crucial to the infra structure operation of the organization. If an organization needs capital to build a new factory but cannot get it because the economy is tight, dilemmas develop. If an organization continues to make a product that no one buys or provides a service no one subcribe to.because it has been declared illegal, that organization cannot continue to operate. If an organization depends on a particular skill to make its produce, and if people who possess this skill are not available in the labor marketplace, the organization will suffer. To prevent situations such as these from accruing, the organization must acquire information that exist in the environment and transmit it internally. If it has no member who can do this, the organization will find itself in a serious situation.. The communication skills of members perception, listening, planning. Organizing, and presenting are all essential to the organization. It is crucial to know that that the transfer of information within the organization and among organizations and its environment is also vital to the health of the organization. What is an Organization Organization are groups of people who associate together for a common purpose. This is what distinguishes organizations from other social phenomena. Any Group of people who coordinate their behavior to achieve a goal may be said to be operating as an organization. Most organizations exist to do a particular thing. Public speaking organizations exist to train individuals to speak and communicate more effectively. Service organizations exist to provide a service to those who need it. Religious organizations exist to promulgate their own brand of gospel. Therefore, the goal of an organization is the thing that the organization exists to do. In order to achieve its goal, the organization behaves in ways that will most effectively be conducive in achieving its goal. All employees in the organization share a concertive effort in achieving the organizations' objective; all employees or the organization share the same goal for that organization; everyone agrees as to which behaviors will be conducive to achieve that goal; and everyone is motivated to behave consistently with the goal.. I someone disgree about the appropriateness of the goal or the most viable method for achieving it, situation will occur. The employees must perceive an importance of the goal before they will work diligent to achieve it. In many cases, employees are counterproductive to the organization goal, example, if a worker thinks that his organization is polluting the environment may believe that his work is injurious to other people. Consequently, this worker may spend his time avoiding his job as much as possible, which is a hinderance to the organization objective (s). STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION Every organization have rules these rules are called structure. Structure enables the organization to standardize work procedures and to specialize the tasks associated with the production processes. The organization is put in place to help the organization in doing its job well. However, sometimes the structure, of the organization comes in conflict with the good of the individual. As individuals gain new talents and new sophistications, they become increasingly valuable to the organization.. It is sound management practice to try to keep these people. The secretary who is hired primarly as a clerical worker but eventually gains a management position is helping not only herself or himself, but the organization as well. As its people grow, so grows the organization. Sometimes organizations try to foster and encourge this growth through training programs and promotional opportunities. Other times, individuals themselves gailn knowledge and expertise without official sanction. An example would be the first-lin supervisor who returns to college to earn a degree in management and becomes one the organizations top managers. As a manager this employee is more valuable to the company. Structure within an organization is conducive to the organization controlling its own destiny. Communication skills play as important role in the development and growth of human resources. Supevisors and managers must be able to take the opportunities for growth. They must also be willing to tell their subordinates about the opportunities for career advancement. In addition, this information must be transmitted in such a way that it is understandable to organizational personnel superiors must instill the ilmportance and relevance of the growth opportunities to them as well as the organization. TASK EXPERTISE An organization is viewed as a series of structured tasks that must be accomplished in order to achieve its purpose. These tasks, in many cases, are all interrelated. Example, a baseball team is an organization with a purpose to win. For the team to win, certain task must be done. For example, there must be a strong pitching. Infact, thils particular task may be subdivided even further, There must be both stron left-handed and strong right-handed pitching. There must also be a good infield and a strong outfield, There must be a good catcher.. t my grandsons (Shelton Waters, and Shannon Rice) plays in a little league baseball teams. The team must be strong on defense (catching the ball) and strong on offense (hitting the ball). Even if the team is strong on the field, success will come only if it is equally stron in the dugout. There must be a good bench player, also, ready to replace the regulars on the field, A group of dependable relief pitchers is necessary, should the starters falter. Avove all, there must be good management. Some one individual must be responsible for inserting players, changing pitchers, and so forth. If any one task in this organization breaks down, the team will not winl This analogy holds for just about every organization. Generally, it is people who perform the tasks in an organization. However, because people have thoughts, attitudes, and feelings, they sometimes fail to accomplish their tasks. Tasks are accomplished when people know what to do and want to do. Occassionally and individual will kno what to do but will want to do it. For instance, a baseball player may know how to play center fiend well, but because he believes he is underpaid, hemay not want to do the job. Sometimes the opposite also happens an individual may want to do the job but does not know how. Methoporically, it might be possible to call up a player from the minor leagues who sincerely wants to play center field, But he may not have the skill to do the job. Unfortunately, both lack of dire and lack of talent can prevent tasks in organizations from being accomplished. However, it is fortunate, that organization can develop training programs to give the individual expertise in a particular task. Communication skills play a vital role in developing task expertise. Tood communication skills help trainers to explain methods and techniques clearly. These skills also help trainers to understand and apply what they hear in training programs. The situation of motivation is a more difficult one. Here communication enables the organization to explain to individuals why they should accomplish the task. Ilnformation about the potential rewards of accomplishing a task can also be communicated. This, too, may increase motivation COMMITMENT As you may have encountered, Organizations often as and sometimes expect contributions "above and beyond the call of duty." Consider the case of the business executive who will spend eighteen hours working on a report, the minister who spends five nights a week calling on the sick, or the college professor who spends every weekend in his study working on a textbook. These are examples of the kind of devotion that some people bring to their organizations. As one rises in the hierarchy, the organization increasingly begins to expect( and sometimes even demand) this kind of commitment. People render it for a variety of reason. Some people truly love their job and would rather work than do anything else. Some people want to get ahead and see this kind of commitment as a way of doing so. Some people see their own personal goals as being linked to those of the organization, so that by giving this kind of commitment, they are really working for themselves. Communication skills are important in developing commitment. Managers must offer reasons why subordinates should be committed. Information about the benefits of commitment should be exchanged. As people perceive the rewards of commitment, they may well begin to demonstrate it. ENERGY AND CONTROL As we know, organization, like people. Need energy to function effectively. And on the other hand, the organization need control. As we have seen, the organization is always changing. This does not mean that the change is always random. There may well be an element of random change. But normally change will be controlled and planned. One of management's main jobs is to control and direct human behavior. People sometimes demonstrate random energy, and this may have to be controlled. But the mechanical energy of an organization must be controlled as well. Organizations that can control energy can sometimes initiate change before they are forced to do so by existing conditions. These organizations are said to be proactive, able to control their own destiny A proactive organization is a leader in its fields. ORGANIZATIONS CULTURE Many organizations develop their own cultures. Stories, anecdotes, and social histories of an organization constitute its culture. We are exposed to a company's culture when we go to work for it. Others who are already working there tell us how to function, who to "watch out for," and "the lowdown on the really nice things about working here>" These are all culture phenomena. Often an organization's storied past will influence how it functions. Apple computer, for years, was known as a counterculture organization because it was started by two young men in a garage in Northern California. Now, under a new but traditional management team, the counterculture tag is part of Apple's "acient History." Organizations with long and colorful histories will probably be different in climate from those that are young. Regardless of the content, organizations do develop cultures. The communication of the culture of the organization takes place through both written and oral channels. Such devices as annual reports and pamphlets detail; but the primary means of transmission takes place orally. Because an organization does not usually want to commit negative aspects of its culture to writing, the written culture is sanitized. Through word-of-mouth, however, much gets communicated. We learn about the culture of an organization through listening to what people are saying. The better our listening skill, the more proficient we become in monitoring and absorbing culture the better communicators we become. Nonetheless, culture do exist and they certainly influence the "feel" of the organization and how employees communicate with one another. People in organizations are often called upon to make public presentations in front of groups. This public communication takes many forms. A manager will be called up to welcome new employees… A teacher will discuss a new curriculum proposal with a group of colleagues. A department head will have to defend the department's budget to a board of directors. All of these situations require the communicator to demonstrate good presentational skills. Presentational skills are important in organizational communication. Normally, a member of an organization will communicate in dyads and small groups more often than in public situation. However, when the member is called upon to make that public presentation, it is usually in a formal setting with a large audience, Sometimes many attitudes will be formulated or changed as a result of the presentation. However, it is important to develop and refine one's public communication skill. Definitions of communication Those processes by which people influence one another…this definition is based on the premise that all actions and events have communicative aspects, as soon as they are perceived by a human being such perception changes the information which an individual possesses and therefore influences him. Leadership by communication involves using, or attempting to use, all of the channesl of communication, trying to keep open all of the avenues of interaction between oneself and one's subordinates. Such terms as "openness," mutual trust," "respect," supportiveness," and "honesty" characterize this form of leadership. Communication is reciprocal. The sender adapts the messae to meet the needs of the receiver, as the sender interprets those needs. The leader and the subordinate also have a reciprocal relationship. The leader depends on the subordinate for effort, for information, and for loyalty. The subordinate depends on the leader for information, for support at appraisal and pay raise time, and for expertise. Each meets the other's needs through communication. When communication channelare closed, little can be done to develop compliance to the organization's goals. Confdence is closely related to McGregor's Theory Y assumptions. For leadership by communcation to take place. Both the leader and the subordinate must make assumptions of mutual confidence and trust. The leader must assume that the subordinate will follow through on his or her duties. The subordinate must assume that the boss will act fairly. Empathy is closely related to the concept of confidence. Empathy is the ability to understand and identify with another person's motives. It is the ability to recognize the various pressures and expectations placed on the other person. Of course, only when people are willing to share can others recognize these pressures and expectations. Some degree of self-disclosure is a necessary component in a superior-subordinate relationship if empathy is to be developed. Communication is more than just sound, perhaps you are one of those people who judge the effectiness of a communication solely on the basis of how the speaker sounds. Lets hope you will change your method of evaluation. Delivery is an important component of good communication, but it is less important than some of the other topics we have considered in this paper. Some common pitfalls in delivery is delivering a presentation is not a skill one acquires overnight. It takes time and a great deal of practice. There are a few classic pitfalls that inexperienced communicators seem to fall into. "And ah" transitions words. Some nervous communicators are under the impression that they must constantly fill up the airways with sounds. They string their words and phrases together with "and 'ahs." When an entire speech is connected with to many and it becomes one long paragraph. No one would string together written sentences like this, but people often do it when they speak. There is nothing wrong with pausing and letting the airways clear up once in a while. By avoiding the use of and you will make your presentation flow much more smoothly. Mumbling. Nervous communicators also occasionally fall into the habit of mumbling. Some mumblers go so fast that it is difficult to understand them. Other mumblers will neglect to pronounce all of the syllables of their words. If you mumble, you audience will have difficulty focusing on your message. Pacing. Walking around in front of the audience is another common mistake. There is nothing wrong with a littleactivity, but when it becomes excessive, it can create problems. In your own experience you may have noticed a speaker who paces back and forth in front of you. The pacing was for no apparent reason; it was just a nervous mannerism conveying tension from speaker to audience. Your movements should support your message. If they do not, they are unnecessary and should be avoided. Such organization as Toastmaster International, one of the largest organization in the world will assist you in honing your communication skills with confidence. Organizations such as Toastmaster public speaking organization is in place to assist you in communicating in any desired setting. Written communication is as important as oral communication. Sound writing is the essence of a good presentation. All of the principles of good communication have at least some application to writing. Many of the following ideas have been introduced elsewhere in this book. Here they are reexamined as they pertain to written communication. Other ideas are new. All will help you to improve your writing abilities. The reader will interpret a piece of writing according to his or her personal experience. People will read information from the perspective of their own experience. The two most important components of this background are the situation and the personality of the reader. Consider the following memorandum from a sales manager to employees: Each Employees will of sales will interpret this memorandum according to his perception of his own immediate situation. If one sales person has noticed some of his colleagues missing appointments or getting started late in the day, he will interpret the memorandue to mean that ehe boss is trying to crack down on the others in the department. If one salesman's territory is so far away from the home office, where the memorandum at all. To him, it is not communication, especially if he has been meeting the quota and making sales appointments. If for some good reason , such as sickness or family problems, one salesman has missed quota for the last month, he may assume that the manager's appointments. If for some good reason, such as sickness or family problems, one salesman has missed quota for last month, he may assume that the manaer's memorandum is intended specifically for him. As he reads it, he may conclude that the supervisor is coming down on hem unfairly. This may eventually hinder his work performance. He may become so upset that he stops trying even to meet quota. In all three cases, one simple, three-sentence memo has done more harm than good, because people place their own interpretations on what they read. It is impossible for the writer to foresee every possible interprtation. However, good writer examine work for ambiguities. When they find one, they do their best to remove it. This will reduce, through it cannot completely prevent, misinterpretation. Writing does not provide the opportunity for immediate feedback, so the writer should explore ways to generate reader reaction. Wememtioned that oral communication provides a sense of give-and t-take between the sender and the receiver. This is not true of written communication, because the receiver will often read it out of the presence of the sender. If feedback does come, it is often so delayed that the writer cannot judge the initial impact of his or her message on the reader. One of the most critical failures in organizational communication occurs when administrators fail to respond to a proposal or a written idas generated by someone in the organization. If you have a sound idea bout ways to improve worker productivity in your unit, you are encouraged in most organizations to write it down for consideration. But if you never get a response to your suggestion, you may never make another suggestion again. This is a waste of enthusiasm and talent. It is one of the classic reasons why organizations are continually experiencing breakdowns in upward communication. It is impossible to guarantee feedback in every piece of written communication. But written communication becomes two-way interaction only when feedback has taken place, Some of the ways in which feedback can be generated are by using cover sheets on memoranda that ask the reader to evaluate the course of action being remmened , by installing a telephone system whh enables reader to ask questions about a written document, and by chicking out the reader's reactions orally. These techniques do not guarantee feedback, but they do make it easier. As in all forms of communication, there is no one best way to write something, but rather a few ways that will probaly work well. This theme, too, shoud be familiar to you by now. We will only touch on it here. Some writers labor for hours over a single letter or memorandum attempting to get just the right phrase or word. While this perfectionism may be admirable, it is not efficient. It takes up too much time.. Writing is a matter of communication of getting information across simply and straightforwardly. If in fifteen minute you can write a memo that communicates the same ideas as your co-worker's memo that took two hours to write, then you are ahead in the game because you have an hour and 45 minutes to devote to other activities. Good writing in the organizational setting is a matter of trade-offs. You will have to trade off some of your concern for perfection against the utility of getting the message out quickly and clearly… Remember that the reader is facing just as many demands on his or her time as you are if not more. A good writers edit and refine their work until it transmits their main ideas clearly. Some writers fall int the trap of using technical words in a nontechnical context. These writers say interface for"meet," input for "giving ideas," and ramifications for "effect." Try to keep it simple. Good writer write in English, Not in jargon. The reader or employee should not have to search for the central idea. The point of yor message must be clear; the reader shoud not have to search for your main ideas. Two principles of journalistic wrintingare applicable to organizational writing because they enable us to express the main ideas clearly. The first principle is the concept of the lead paragraph. The first paragraph of a newspaper article must communicate six crucial pieces of information: What? Who? Where? When? How? Many books about communication consider only oral or only written interaction. Good communication in organization need both oral and written communication skills. Writing is a vital communication skill. Organizations typically develop volumes of written material every day to disseminate information downward as well as upward the mobility ladder within the organization The memorandum, the production report, the newsletter, the brochure all play a role in the organization's communication program. Characteristices of communication Communication is dynamic and ongoing, A famous communication theorist once said, "You can never not communicate." Although the statement might contain too many negatives to accommodate the English grammarian, it is indeed profound. The concept goes like this: Because we receive communication stimuli almost constantly from a wide variety of sources, the process of giving and receiving information is taking place constantly all around us. Think back to the time when you attended your last football game. The pageantry, the weather, the person you were (or ere not) attending the game with, the condition of the playing field, the quality of the hot dogs all probably influenced you as much as the football played down on the field. Information from thousands of events and combinations of events, both past and present, is processed by our cognitive structure. Purpose Communication , Communication helps people get what they want. It may help them to reach goals or to obtain social reinforcement, as we have seen. But people alson adjust to their environment and make sense out of their surroundings via communication. When we are cast into a new or different situation, we feel uncertain or confused at first. We begin to reduce this uncertainty through communication We interact with others, we seek out information to provide us with input about our new environment, and we think through our own background and experience to retrieve information that may be helpful to us now. Eventually. When all this information starts coming in, we begin to adjust and feel more comfortable in our surroundings. Social Communication As we try to bring some certainty to our environment, we begin to develop skills that enable us to interact with others. It is through this interaction that we reach others and enable others to reach us. Communication becomes the vehicle through with we test out our perceptions and ideas with others. In so doing, we learn whether our view of the world is consistent with the views of others. The old adages" Man is a social animal" and "Noman is an island" speak to the aspect of the human spirit. All of us need others. And this need is satisfied through communication. Complex Communication, We view the basics of survival water, food, and shelter as fairly simple, But communication is also basic to survival. Communication, however, is far form simple, primarily, because it is human beings who do the communicating. People make communication complex because people themselves are complex and involved in the process of sending and receiving vague information. People will hear not what was said, but what they think was said. Rarely will an individual convey completely objective information with out adding some element of the subjective. For these reasons communication con not be considered as exact science. The study of communication must eventually lead to the study of other aspects of human behavior. Such as personality, attitude, motivation, and learning What Does Communication Help Us Do Communication enables us to do certain things. It enable us to grow, to learn, to become cognizance or ourselves, and to adjust to our environment. When we can co thest things. We are on the road to good mental health. Growth We develop and grow by communication with other in our environment. And we occasionally change our environment using communication to help us grow in new surroundings. We gain this information about things. Places and other people through communication. As we internalize more ideas, we grow as people. Learning Closely related to individual growth is the process of learning. Learning, in this context, means the accumulation of information. Growth, on the other hand, involves the total personality of the individual. Almost all instructions utilize some form of communication. Cognitive We become aware of who we are primarily through communication.. People tell us thins about ourselves that we use to monitor our development as people. We gain input that tells us if we are successful in our behavior exchange with others. We develop a sense of our heritage and of our potential through communication. Who you are today is the product of thousands of communication exchanges that you have experienced throughtout you life. Procedures of Grievance The hearing of grievances is another type or managerial consultation. In many organizations, the grievance procedure is virtually the only channel through which the managers obtain information about morale, motivation, and conflict at lower levels of the organization. The settlement of grievances can be highly rewarding for both the manager and the organization, but it is intrinsically difficult and requires much more than simple goodwill. A grievance is a complaint plus a request for redress. All organizations are full of complaints openly expressed to peers and sometimes to outsiders, but relatively few of them turn into grievances by being attached to a request for redress. The non -directive interview that were part of the famous. Western Electric study collected eighty thousand complaints from workers in one industrial plant during a single year and classified them neatly into objectively verifiable complaints, subjective complaints, and non-logical complaints. The Western Electric investigators concluded that the underlying attitude of the complaints, subjective complaints, and illogical complaints, The Western Electric investigators concluded that the underlying attitude of the complainants toward their work and their associates was often more significant in accounting for complaints than the particular conditions complained of the mere opportunity to complain to a receptive listener connected with management had a favorable effect on morale, after telling that complaints to the interviewer, workers often perceived an improvement to the condition complained about even though no objective change had occurred. These effects have been confirmed in subsequent studies and used to organizational counseling programs. A particularly interesting factory study carried out to England by workers against their foremen could by dissolved by a patterned system of eliciting and discussing complaints without changing the behavior of the foremen in any way. How many of an organization's circulating complaints turn into active grievances depends upon their volume and intensity, the receptivity of management to grievances, its reputation for fairness, the attitudes of particular managers, and the presence or absence of third parties. A high grievance rate is always a bad sign, but an abnormally low grievance rate is suspicious. Rensis Likert, in his New Patterns of Management, presented statistical evidence to show that industrial workers who are hostile to the enterprise in which they work seldom submit grievances. The same study also showed that people at each level of management overestimate the extent to which their subordinates feel free to express grievances, giving themselves much higher marks for accessibility than they deserve, while rating their own superiors much lower than themselves in this respect. Well-run organizations have only a small number of grievances, and management reacts to them promptly and vigorously. Most of these grievances fall into a few simple categories that are part of every manager's experience. The most common grounds for grievances are quarrels between superiours and subordinates. Discrimination against an individual or a group, breaches of the organization's rules, and neglect of organizational duties. To handle grievances, you many establish an open-door policy whereby anyone in the organization can approach you with a grievance at any time, or authorize a walking delegate to bring you grievances on behalf of the ran-and file, or turn over all grievances to an internal tribunal. Some managers follow a closed-door policy, whereby grievances are referred back to lower levels of the organization or simply ignored. This latter policy, although widely practiced. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The genesis of the apartment management grew out of the first major social upheaval of the modern era. The place of the renters were opened to the public by the revolutionaries as a national living arena belonging to all the people of that society. In addition to the new society in America the louver became an attraction and influenced renters from around the world. One renter saw the advantage of renting opposed to buying. Most settlers were undecided as to where they wanted to call home, north, east and west. Many saw the new wave of living a means of as well as a vehicle for a better life of their own choosing. The new comers wanting very much to take advantage of their new found power (choice). To stimulate the nuclear-style of life, it is requisite that our public should have free access to move and choose as they wish. In addition, they had a choice of schools, church in which they wish to attend Unfortunately, fiancé was their biggest situation. However, because of financial distress the ability of the apartment way of living was to serve the public has not kept pace with the public's interest. This is in spite of the fact that apartment are the wealthiest form of American collecting institutions. As pointed out by owner It is something of a paradox, then, that the anguished circle of financial distress issue for the most part from nuclear living and a great number of families dividing as a result. Apartment complex averages a large amount of residual income. However, many apartment owner have had to dip into endowment capital. In city after city leading complex owner have been forced to foreclose due to insufficient fund. To curtail service, and to tighten rental condition. Mandatory or "suggested" entry fees have been increased. In order to move in to an apartment the rent is doubled plus other fees. The apartment industry's ability to serve the public has not kept pace with the public's interest because of what is called the extended family tradition. As pointed out by Alexander (1979, p. 20) and meyer. Rich and powerful gentlemen in America were the forces that created and maintained the nuclear family. Since these patrons of tradition were answerable only to their own conscience and task in managing organization, they had no doubt as to who was in charge of the rental while traveling to pursue other business deals, there were not question about qualification, and no need for concern about the maintenance of standards. Finances for running the complex were derived simply from personal wealth. The staff in turn had little if any managerial training, particularly in personnel relations, or dealing with difference personalities. Administration and money management however, according most of the owners are in the process of seeking new forms of governance, a process which will affect their traditional foundation, purpose and meaning. This evolving process has been made necessary because of the change in the social, political. And financial context in which apartment complex exist today. As individual wealth, power, and privilege have given way to new divisions of social responsibility between individual and the state, the tradition of personal administrative dictatorship and the consent which made it possible have been eroded. Many maintained that big apartment complex now rely on, to a great extent on public support. First and farmost, these complexes must new managers trained in administration who are open to the scrutiny of an educational background check. In order to have more room for discretionary action, the directorate… tries to isolate the apartment business as far as possible from market or commercial valuations. Application of specialized noncommercial standards helps to minimize the attacks coming from outside, since it makes it very difficult for ordinary renters. Communication Building a Consensus The manager's task of holding the organization together requires an adequate flow of information upward and downward, and inward and outward. The adequacy of this information flow is measured by the consensus that results from it; that is, the extent to which members of the organization come to agree about the organization's goals. With high consensus, an organization will have few quarrels; with intermediate consensus, there will be many quarrels., but most of them will be resolved or contained; with low consensus, there will be frequent and severe conflicts and any one of them may turn into a disaster. Communication and consensus are intimately related, but the relationship is too complex to be reduced to the simple formula. On the one hand, the improvement of consensus ordinarily requires increased communication. On the other hand, an increase in the flow of information between two parts of an organization con undermine an existing consensus. Every organization can be analyzed as a communication network. The analyxis of the multiple factors that affect the efficiency of a communication network such as physical distance, social distance, commonality of language, extraneous noise, authentication, and circuit design is always interesting. The practical problems of communication that every active manager must face present themselves in simpler form. The questions you might ask yourself look like this: A. How can the routine reqorts I receive about the organization's activities be made more reliable, accurate, and comprehensive? B. With whom shuld I consult before making decisions? Who should I inform about decisions after they are made. C. What information do I need to keep secret? how? D. How much attention should I give to rumormorgers and tal bearears? What use, if any, should I make of spies? E. How should I go about repairing or replacing parts of the communications network that have broken down? F. How can I make my nonverbal gestures mean what I want them to mean to the organizational audience? In actual experience, these six questions and their answers are inextricably entwind, but for purposes of discussion it is convenient to consider them separately. Routine Reports The easiest way to make your mark as a manager is to improve the quality of the routine reports the organization produces hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually; in written, graphic, or numerical form about its ongoing activities. This is often quite easy to do, because there are very few people who grasp the importance of routine reporting and even fewer who understand how to set up appropriate reporting procedures. Systims of routine reporting deteriorate in use, so that even the best system neens to be reformed from time to time. The first step in setting up or reforming a system of routine reports is to determine priorities, Top-priority reports are those that claim attention as soon as they appear. Middle-priority reports are needed for occasional reference. Low-priority reports refer to matters that do not ordinariloy require action. A good deal of care, and as much expense as necessary, outht to be lavished on the production of top-priority reports, It goist without saying that reports in this category should be as prompt, accurate. And complete as is humanly possible. And that they should be in a form that permits comparison with other organizations. With past performance, and with projected achievements. As usual, it may be helpful to visualize a concrete case. Let us use a public high school for this purpose and assume that you are the principal. The most important routine report that comes to your desk is the daily attendance report (see Figure 1 ) ought to provide a summary absenteeism rate for the entire school and the corresponding rates for yesterday, last week, and a year ago. If records of lateness are kept, you might be tempted to add a comparable summart of lateness to the daily attendance report, but unless lateness has some special local significance. The temptation should be resisted. Lateness and ablenteeism are both good (negative) indicators of morale, but they are so closely related that only the absenteeism rate need be calculated. For both the producers and the users of routine report, it is nealy as important to keep superfluous information out as to get essential information in. By the way, when computers are used, this is much harder to do. Let us assume that school begins every morning at 8:30. The daily attendance report, preferably on a single sheet of paper, come to you by 9:30. Like most top-priority reports, it has multiple functions. If the report is usually on time and complete, you are likely to take its accuracy for granted after a while. But you ought not to do so since, in the first place, reports of human behavior are inherently fallible and, in the second place, systems of routine reporting tent to deteriorate. You must remind yourself to verify the information in the daily attendance report from time to time and to raise a terrible fuss whenever you find an error. The enumeration of absentees can be verified by going to a classroom and comparing the number of students physically present with the number listed as present. The total number present and absent in a given category can be compared with the number of names on the official roster The arithmetric of totals and percentages can be verified by calculation, The figures for yesterday or loast year may be checked against yesterday's or last year's reports in the files. it=picking procedures like thesewill not only help to keep the report trustworthy, they will also uncover anomalous and irregular situations of which you, the principal, should be aware. Weekly reporting is relatively unimportant in a school; school weeks are of uneven length because of holidays. Recesses, examinations, and other special events, Months are more significant. The principal's top-priority reports will certainly include a monthly attendance report; a monthly financial report that tells you where you are running ahead of or behind the budget; a utilities report summarazation the school's consumption of electricity, and telephone service asumption; and an inventory report, showing supplies on hand. Unless this last report is carefully made and the movement of supplies in and out is just as carefully verified, pilferage is certain to flourish. You may well feel that your attention should be given to profound educational issues, but unless you are willing to endure the demoralization that accompanies waste and stealing, you had better give the utilities and inventory reports your full attention when they come to you. The other significant reporting periods for a high school are the school term and the school year. Some reports are prepared both for the term and for the year; others for the year only. Just as the daily report generates a monthly report, so each monthly report generates a term report and an annual report. Some important reports are solely annual; for example. An academic achievement report, which shows the average grades assigned to students by level and subject, the average scores obtained by the students on standard achievement tests, the ration of successful grade completions to the entering population of each grade, and the number of college applications and acceptances for the graduation class. This report, although complicated in appearance, is essential; without it, the school would fly blind. We have lingered some time in the high school principal's office in order to show you how numerous and diverse are the minimun elements of information you need to do this job in a rational way. Most high schools do not have as good a system of routine reporting as the one outlined above. Instead, the principal receives a great volume of middle-and low-priority information that ought to stop lower down in the organization or not be gathered at all. Even a superficial analysis of the flow of paper in most high schools and other organization will show people filling out forms in quintuplicate when one copy would be amply sufficient, keeping elaborate records for no purposes, obtaining redundant approval for routine actions, or preparing periodic reports that no one ever sees. It is only by pruning the overgrowth of red tape that the flowers of useful information can be made to grow. In another type of organization, the routine reports that come to a manager might be more analytical and less descriptive. For example, and old study of the organizational performance of insurance agencies by Seashore and Yuchtman at the University of Michigan refers to such variables reported to agency managers as production costs per thousand dollars of insurance carried, maintenance costs per hundred dollars of premium collected, number of lives covered per one thousand insurables in the population, and so on for a total of seventy-six numerical indicators. Curiously, howver, the total volume of informantion required for effective management does not seem to vary in proportion to the size or complexity of the organization, if only because the ability of a single mind to absorb and remember information is limited. The larger the organization, the more severlymust information be sifted and screened before it reaches the top. What happens then is pretty much the same in all well-run organizations: the report is scanned and its main outlines are remembered; occasionally some item stimulates further action. Consultation is an Art One of the most common managerial errors is the failure to consult someone who is entitled to be consulted about a particular matter. Just as it is said to be impossible to finish a sailboat race without making at least a few errors of judgment, so it is probably impossible to manage an organization without making some errors in consultation, but success usually goes to the skipper with the fewest errors. The reason the art of consultation is so difficult is that it involves actions that run counter to the normal impulses of a good manager. Consultation interposes delays between the formulation and the excecution of a project, elicits foolish and irrelevant objections, and leads to modifications that tarnish the original luster of the thing. Consultation with line-workers or fellow employees often feels uncomfortable. The manager has a sense of going hat in hand to beg or buy support he could as easily command. But nine times out of ten it will be better to suffer the discomfort of full consultation than to omit any part of it. The most essential persons to be consulted in advance of a manaerial decision are the subordinate managers and staff advisers and rank-and-file workers who will have to carry it out. The desirability of consulting those who are directly affected is self-evident; they are likely to have vital information about whether and how the decision can be implemented. Managers who don't get that information in advance are likely to make foos of themselves whenever they issue a directive, like the engineering executives in the machine shop studied by Donald Roy who periodically introduced new procedures that crippled production until the workmen evolved methods of circumventing them. But getting advice is only one of the twin purposes of consultation. The other and equally important purpose is to elicit consent. People are much more likely to support a decision they helped to make, or think they helped to make, than to support a decision imposed on them from above. This magic is so powerful that even an illusory participation in the making of a decision is often sufficient to secure the support of those who would otherwise oppose it. It is possible to devise a tricks that make use of this effect, for example, by putting obvious mistakes and defects into a proposal so that the people consulted will find it easy to make suggestions for improvement and to ascertain later that their suggestions have been followed. Even without such conniving. When the opponents of a project are seriously consulted and induced to participate in the planning stage, they often are irresistibly drawn toward the project despite their initial opposition. Like most magic spells, this one can turn upon its user. The manager who seeks advice need not take it, but you must never seem to despise it. Hell hath no fury like a consultant scorned. To consult all the subordinate managers and statt advisers directly affected is a more delicate operation. This sort of consultation runs the risk of arousing opposition in quarters where neither support nor opposition were called for. Nevertheless, because the indiredt effects of decisions are so significant as when the decision to expand one department of an organization is perceived as punitive by department that are not expanded the need for advice and consent often extends for beyond that part of an organization which seems to be directly concerned. A skillful manager will extend the consultation process as part as possible without creating needless problems, which is generally a good bit further than you natural inclination would take you. There are several special types of consultation that call for some modification of the foregoing principles. Among these are consultation with committess, grievance procedures, consultation with outside experts, and consultation with the rank-and-file. Committees Consulting The great comic therorist of organization, Professor Parkinson, once suggested a formal study of committees to be know as "commitology." And mentioned in passing the fact that the world committee was originally singular and denoted a peron appointed to represent the legal interests of a lunatic. The phenomenon is much older and wider than the word, however. Every organization. Even a street-corner gang. Seems to generate some committees. Large organizations have thousands of committees, with all sorts of administrative, judicial, and technical functions. We will confine our attention here to committees designed primarily for consultation. Within this category there are standing committees, special committess, and ad hoc committees. The universal annoyance with committees is partly explained by the fact that that so many committee meetings are occupied with business that is of little interest to the members. But from you standpoint as a manager, no meeting of a committee within your jurisdiction is really dull, The committee is an instrument that serves your interests much more than the interests of other members, no matter how democratic and egalitarian its proceedings may be. Although commitology is not likely to become a recognized social science, there have been several excellent studies of how committees operate andwhat factors influence them for example, the laboratory studies of Harold Guetzkow and of james david barber. And the observational studies of Richard f. fenno. Jr.. The finding of these studies, taken together, suggest that committees with organizational tasks work best under a strong chairman who poses many questions, speaks more to the whole group than to individuals, defines the issues keeps the discussion on its track. Relates the amount of discussion to the available time, and endeavors to arrive at group decisions. "There is a general expectation" Writes Berkowitz in summarizing his study of seventy-two committees in business, industry and government, "that the so call designated leader, the chairman, should be the sole major behavioral leader." He goes on to say that the sharing of leadership by other members seems to leave the members of a committee dissatisfied with each other and with their deliberations, regardless of whether the committee members who share leadership with chairman are supporters or opponents. The empirical studies also seem to agree that successful chairmen do not attempt to prevent expression of opposing viewpoints or to force a consensus prematurely.. Several studies show that strong chairmen are better liked by their committees than passive chairmen, but also show that chairmen who are outranked by the member of their committees are likely to be passive. These research results stand in apparent contradition to what is sometimes called "sensitivity traning." A method whereby people in large organizations are taught sensitivity in human relations as a means of developing "interpersonal competence.: The formula for a successful sensitivity training group is nearly the opposite of the formula for a successful committee. The triaing group works bes with a passive, Permissive leader who makes no attempt to hold discussions to a fixed agenda or a definite time schedule, but encourages digressions that reveal the hidden emotions of the participants. This approach makes sense in its own context, whch is closely related to group therapy, and the people who are sent by large organizations to participate in such training for examplel, the government officials who attend the Federal Executive Institute in Charlottesville, Virginia usually find the experience pleasant and educational.. But those enthusiansts who attempt to impose the style of the training group on working committees in large organizations merely sow confusion. How to Appoint Committees. A standing committee is a body with a continuous responsibility that calls for collective rather than individual judgment for example, the rules committee of a legislature, the admissions committee of a college, the loan committee of a bank. As a rule of thumb, a standing committee should have a minimum of five members and a maximun of perhaps nine, although, of course, there are justifiable exceptions. The reason for the minimun of five is that it implies a working majority of three, which represents about as narrow a spread of collective judgment as con suffice in a situation that calls for collective judgment. The maximum of nine is a less rigid limit, but since most standing committees must meet regularly without the stimulus of an emergency, the difficulty of scheduling meetings for a larger number of people suggests and upper limit in this neighborhood unless the business of the committee is so overwhelmingly important that none of its members is likely to develop conflicting obligations. As the manager of an organization, you ought never to appoint yourself as chairman of a standing committee. By doing so, you would defeat the purposes of such a committee, which are to relieve you of administrative burdens and to substitute a collective judgment for your individual judgment in certain recurrent, non critical situations, It is usually a good idea, however, for you to be and ex officio member of any standing committee within your jurisdiction so as to have easy access to its deliberations and records when matters in which you are especially interested are considered The chairmen of standing committees outh to be senior to most the other members, if only because they have to allocate work to them from time to time. They ought not have to hold extreme opinions with respect to the area of interest. Or be too new to the organization to understand its informal norms. The membership of a standing committee should be as broadly representative as its size permits, with regard to organization rank, personal characteristics, and factional affiliations. It takes teamwork to to run an effective organization therefore, committees and consultants are vital to a thriving organizational infra structure. Teamwork Theneedforteamwork has long been a part of American cultural lore. We remember the great teams like the 1927 New York Yankees and the 1987 Los Angeles Lakers. Teamwork at the workplace, while considered important, has nto been stressed in management theory. We ususlly regard the wrokplace as an environment in which individual effort produces individual rewards, b the work of Professors change our thinking about the importance of teamwork on the job, Theory Z after a comprehensive study of the management practices being followed in Japan. While there are huge cultural differences between the United States and Japan. Americans have cometo respect the accomplishments of the Japanese in the worldwide industrial arena. After being defeated in World War11 Japan has risen to become the world's great exonomic leader. Japan's export-based economy dominates the world in everything from tape recorders to automobiles. The Japanese have been successful in competing in a world market even though their nation has few natural resources and must depend entirely on imported sources of energy. In my study, I found that one of the reasons for success in Japanese organizations to be the presence of high levels of trust and friendship among their worker. Further, in Japanese companies, employees seemed to enjoy working together in groups. In American organizations "work" starts at 9 A.M. and ends at 5 P.M. Most of us have one set of friends at work and another away from work, many organizations discourage close personal contact. For example, some organizations have policies against too much interaction at the work place; the assumption is that if people are talking, they must not be working. For most of us, vacations mean getting away from work and from those we work with. Fun and work are two phenomena not normally grouped within the American industrial culture. In viewing the basics of Japanese business, there are silgnificant differences between Japan and the United States in terms of these trust and friendship issues.. It is not uncommon in Japan for people who work together to establish close working and professional relationships. Managers and nonmanagers elect to spend their time away from work with each other. In Japan, spouses of workers are encouraged to associate with one another. Vacations are spent with people from the company, and the Japanese organization often assumes employee travel expenses. It is not uncommon for Japanese firms to charter airplanes for employees to travel to China. Hawaii, Australia and Europe for holiday periods, close contact with fellow worker, both at and away from work, creates conditions which employees learn to trust one another… From this trust comes close working relationships leading to a committee work group that contributes to the goals of the organizations. Two example of how teamwork functions at the work place. Case No. 1 Monica Williams works as a sales representative for the Greenville Company. Marketing computer software applications for small businesses in the Pacific Northwest, Charlie calls on the managers to keep members of the sales force competitive. Each company product carries a point total for the sales representative As one software package is sold it yields a specified number of points to the representative accumulated total. Certain packages carry more points the more sold. The greater the point total.. The representatives salary, assignment, and territory are based on the point total. Each month a summary of all the representative's points is sent to everyone in the company.. Each representative is able to compare how he or she is doing compared with all others. If a representative is on the bottom of the list for more than two months. He or she is sent a letter of concern." After more than six months at the bottom of the list, a termination letter is automatically sent. The system seems to be working since the company has been increasing sales at an annual rate of 25 percent for the last five years. Case No. 2 Williams Garage has developed a reputation as the best place in town to take your car for repair. Williams has designed a system whereby each mechanic shares in all of the profits from the garage. If one mechanic is not producing, another works with the low producer to see what the problem is. Workers are free to establish their own hours and elect their own lead mechanics who are responsible for assigning specific jobs. After work, most of the mechanics get together across the street at Harry's dine for beer and conversation. Often their wives join the group for dinner. If anything comes up and a formal meeting is called for, the whole group for dinner. If anything comes up and a formal meeting is called for. The whole group meets at the local bowling alley. Decisions are made pretty easily because the guys are usually eager to bowl a few frames after the meeting. There has been absolutely no turnover at the garage for the past four years. The output has increased each year. The garage has been so successful that all of the available time slots are filled with customers bringing in cars for repairs. Business is so good that the group is going to have to make a decision about taking on additional mechanics. The two cases provide a basis for understanding the concepts of trust and friendships. In the first case, Willie is and individual forced to survive in a competitive situation. He has few resources for emotional support, and must determine for himself what needs to be done each day on the job. In contrast to willie's work situation, the Williams Garage has been organized along the lines of the Japanese management model detailed in Theory Z. The mechanics who work in the garage are members of a that takes responsibility for its own management.. Neither model can be effective in all situations. Whether or not all American firms can be organized into teams is an important question. Japanese workers learn from their first day on the job to work as a team player. American do not. American firms must rethink how the how the workplce is organized. Many firms have integrated a policy of increased teamwork into their organizational structure, Whe an organization implements a quality circle or a decision-making group, it is to stimulate teamwork and improve the quality of the product. Communication and Teamwork Communication and increased teamwork are closely related. There are several characteristics of organizational communication that foster increased teamwork. 1. Communication in situations emphasizing teamwork tends to be open and flexible. This means that teamwork encourages frank and open discussions of members' ideas and contributions. Such discussions are based on the equal status of all team employees. 2. Communication is situations emphasizing teamwork is characterized by trust and friendship. Team employees have already built up good will and warmth among themselves. Work-related communication is based on mutual regard and honesty. 3. Communication in situations emphasizing teamwork is highly personal. Since the distinction between work and non work-related issues is blurred, people appear to be comfortable talking about a range of topics. Discussion of personal concerns is encouraged by other team employees. 4. Communication in situations emphasizing teamwork stresses cohesiveness. Since all team employees are working toward the same objective, the interaction builds cohesion among the employees The assumption is that each employee is equally important to the success of the the team. Most employees accept the notion that team success is more important than individual success. Taking Risk The book published by Peters and Waterman's has created much interest to many organizations. "In Search of Excellence. The book has stimulated a movemnt in U.S. organizations toward excellence. The book identified a number of companies in the United States that could be characterized as excellent through their style, climate, and performance. After examining many of their target companies, the authors developed a list of characteristics that could be used to identify excellent companies. Several of the characteristics from In Search of Excellence will be examined in this paper. The characteristic most helpful in differentiation these companies can be labeled "resk taking and an organizational bias for taking some form of action. " One of the criticisms leveled against traditional U.S. industry is that it is often stodgy and unwilling to risk innovative solutions to problems. It takes a large organization time to make decisions. Many levels of bureaucracy must be penetrated before actions and resources are committed to potention solution, These bureaucracies often require a decision to be made at one level but approved "up the chain-of-command' by four or five additional levels of management. A critical view of organizations argues that most would prefer to err on the side of inaction rather than risk failure in the marketplace or the publid arena. This has led to a sense that organizations are usually unimaginative, traditional, and conservative in solving problems. In contrast, excellent organizations are those that are willing to risk failure.. While there is always the risk of failure when companies do business in public, excellent organizations would rather take some kind of action than do nothing. They are willing to suffer the consequences of an idea not working. Perhaps, the most interesting example is the advertising campaign for Hewlett Packard (HP) focusing on "What if …" The point of the campaign is that HP is always willing to take a risk on a new idea to solve the customer's Problems. Let us again use two cases to differentiate between two organizations in terms of risk taking. Case No. 1 Townsend Foods has a reputation for being a conservative supermarket chain in Southern California. The firm's corporate philosophy is to emphasize upper-scale products in established suburban neighborhood locations. The firm has been making about 2 percent profit on its net investment each year. This profit margin has remained constant for the past six years. Recently, however, the company has noticed a decline in profits as the neighborhoods served by Townsend's 30 stores have gradually "aged." Most residents in their stores; neighborhoods have seen their children move away. As families become smaller, less food is bought. Thus, the customer base of Townsend has decreased noticeably. Townsend has continued to invest in store locations in white, suburban neighborhoods, ignoring the large minority population growth in other areas, Very few of Townsend's customers are minority and the company has usually not stocked products popular with minority groups. The demographics of Southern California are changing rapidly but the company has into developed a marketing plan to respond to these changing conditions. Case No. 2 Latah Foods determined several years ago that the growth areas of Southern California would be those populated by the state's escalation population of immigrants from Central and South America and Southwest Asia. These neighborhoods presented and unusual challenge for Latah. The company decided to build smaller, more locally based stores. Store managers are given the freedom to stock products of interest to specific to specific customers. Rather than continuing upper-scale products that appeal to suburban residents and urban professionals, Latah began to stock functional merchandise that can be purchased in bulk sizes. Each store has also been successful in stocking a variety ethnic products especially popular to immigrants. For example, stores in Asian Neighborhoods carry a wide range of Vietnamese and Cambodian products. Stores in Hispanic neighborhoods stock Mexican and El Salvadoran foods and spices. The biggest risk taken by Latah was changing the organization's image. Originally, the company was viewed as a solid competitor in the Southern California food business. It had a solid group of loyal customers. In the view of some analysts, the company's decision to focus on lower-and middle-class minority customers changed the prevailing perception of the organization, going from "traditional and solid" to different However, profits at Latah have been rising significantly each year. The company guessed right in all of its decisions. It is riding the crest of the phenomenal growth trends in California. Risk taking does not guarantee corporate success. U.S. corporate culture is full of organizations that took risks but failed miserably, Certainly, People Express, "the bring you won dinner airline," and Ford's decision to manufacture the Esel are part of our social history. Yet, the point remains: Excellent companies do seem willing to risk failure through a bias for taking action. Supervisory Freedom Managing the work and not the employees are the new wave of managing. Example of the One Minute Manager, Blanchard and Johnson argue that it is easy to be an effective manager. So easy, in fact, that a manager can be successful in time commitments as brief as one minute. The foundation of their approach is, that once an individual knows what the goals of the organization are and has the tools necessary to work toward those goals., there is no need for the supervisor to spend time managing the person. The control function of management is unnecessary because subordinates practice self-direction. Once the broad outline of the organization's directional plan has been established, there is little for the manager to do. While it is possible to criticize the approach as being simpli9stic, it does have great appeal. Deeply engrained in the U.S. view of management is the premise that the manager must monitor closely the activities of each subordinate. Unless people are watched they will "goof Off.' Some managers feel. But, The One Minute Manager is able to establish guidelines clearly so that subordinates can function within them. The two contrasting views can be illustrated in these cases. Cases No. 1 Marvin Sims works as the manager of the City way Bakery Shop. He supervises a staff of 25, which includes and assistant manager and several cooks, waitresses, and bus boys, The Bakery shop is open 24 hours a day and offers a wide-ranging inexpensive menu. While his assistant does relieve some of Allan's burdens, as manager, he works nearly 18 hours a day often coming to work on Sunday, his scheduled day off. Allan feels that his employees will 'screw up' if they are left on their own. Two years ago, a bus boy took 243 dollars from the cash register while Marvin was on vacation. He has blamed himself ever since, Also, several customers have complained that the quality and appearance of the food served deteriorates when the manager is not there. The problem, in Marvin's mind, is that no one can supervised his people better than he. The cooks, since they are the keys to whether or not people like the food, must be reminded about changes in the corporate menu that City follows as a franchise for a national chain. Marvin samples what comes off the grill to make sure the cooks have prepared the dishes appropriately.. Waitresses can be monitored easily. Marvin keeps count of the amount of time customers must wait for an ordered meal. If the wait is longer than 20 minutes, Marvin makes a point of reminding the waitresses about the company standard of serving food within 15 minutes of the time it is ordered. If a table remains covered with dirty dishes for more than ten minutes after someone has finished a meal, Marvin usually cleans the table himself. If the manager cleans a table, it is an automatic reprimand for the bus boy. There is no question that Marvin runs a "tight ship." Since he is always present in the Bakery, he keeps on top of every situation and heads off any potential problem before it escalates. His system works well with customers because the bakery shop has a solid group of loyal patrons. But Marvin often must replace staff because the bakery has a high turnover rate. Case No. 2 Robin Derlic is the coach of the Southwest State University Lady Stingray Basketball team. One of the nation's best women's basketball teams. Robin has had great success a Southwest State since becoming the coach six years ago. Her teams have won 127 games, while losing lonely 27. Last year's team went to the Final Four after going 25-2 during the regular season. Robin success is related to her ability to hire outstand ing assistant coaches She finds eager, talented people and lets them do their job with little direct supervision. She has one assistant who is an outstand recruiter of high school prospects, another who is an excellent defensive coach and game strategist, and another who handles the team's administrative needs, such as travel arrangements and scheduling. In addition, her secretary takes care of Robin's correspondence and paperwork, Because details are handled by others, Robin has free time to give a number of talks in the community about the Northwest State program, She is more relaxed than the typical coach it the frantic world of college sports, She comes into the office at about 11:00 A.M. and leaves after the 4:30 P.M. practice. She will occasionally make a trip to talk to a high school prospect but leaves most of the recruiting to her assistant. Game preparations are handled by another assistant. Even game substitutions and half time pep talks are assigned to an assistant. At the beginning of each season, Robin establishes five goals for the year. Normally, the goals are the same each year. 1. The team's academic grade point average must be above 2.8 2. Each senior player must graduate with her class. 3. The program must recruit four high school players who meet Southwest State's playing and academic standards. 4. Each player must show improvement during the season as both a player and student. 5. The team must win 20 games during the season. These goals are straightforward and easy to follow. Assistant coaches and the members of the team. Robin assumes, are mature, talented people who do not need to be hounded into compliance they did not want to be part of the basketball program they would not be there. The management style has worked remarkably well, For each of her six years, every goal has been surpassed. Her major problem has been that she has had trouble holding on to her assistant coaches. They seem to be attractive candidates for vacant head coaching positions at other universities. When a coach wants to interview for another position. Robin is her biggest supporter. She will go so far as to telephone her recommendation to the selection committee at the university in question. Her assistants know that when the time comes for them to move up, Robin takes great pride in making it easy for them. In fact, former assistants are now head coaches at 15 universities, When an assistant meoves on, Robin is usually swamped with applications from coaches who want to become her assistant. Her approach has been to select the best young assistant and train her in the Southwest State system. After a year or two, the new assistant is working in the system like a old-timer. What The One Minute Manager has taught us is that the term " manage" does not necessarily imply "direction." As managers, we often over manage. Effective management may not require close monitoring of people. The key for the successful one-minute manager is goal clarity. Only when we know where the organization is going, can we work effectively within the organization. The one-minute manager establishes goals and encourages subordinates to work toward them. People are the organization. If individuals or groups are left to launch out on their own, starting with their strengths the organization will more than likely to be a success. Therefore, those of us who have studies organizations often fall into the trap of thinking of them as living organisms. Organizations do have dynamic, life-like characteristics. But ultimately, as we have suggested in this paper, they are the products of the people who occupy positions in them. The Peters and Waterman study of excellent companies did much to remind us of the role of people in insuring the success of the organization. According to Peters and Waterman, excellent organizations recognize that the success of the enterprise depends on the success of people, Not only do excellent companies accept the value of the individual, they go the extremes to insure that productive worker are recognizec. The one Minute Manager makes a similar point with the premise that praise of the individual is one of the keys to management success. Organizations have made progress in their efforts to recognize employees, Early efforts to build employee gymnasiums, to provide college scholarships for workers seeking self-improvement, and to provide bonus and profit-sharing programs were intended to send a message to the employees that they important. Obviously, there are solid reasons to hold on to good employees. Training new employees is costly. Turnover causes loss of productivity. Changing the composition of the work force alters the human mix in the organization, something to be especially avoided when the organization is doing well. But beyond the obvious benefits of and experienced, well-trained work force. Subtle advantage accrue from experience as well. Organizations undergoing change or those in the midst of volatile competitive situations must have a work force that can respond to challenges. New employees, without seasoning cannot function effectively in complex, changing environments. The idea that excellent people make excellent organizations has come to be widely accepted. Given this, the question arises: How can an organization develop a committed, competent, and loyal work force? One solution is to provide useful and regular feedback to employees about performance. All of us want to feel appreciated within our organization. We want an occasional pat on the back. We want to feel that our job is important. A paycheck is one way to reward employees. However, recognition and feedback can be equally important in creating a loyal work force. In one consulting situation the author was told about a supervisor who was expected to talk to his staff about "career development" every six months Unfortunately, he did not mention the subject for nearly three years. People want to know how they are doing and want to be recognized when they are contributing, being told that we have an important role in the success of the organization can make a tremendous difference in our level of commitment. Good companies recognize good employees. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal messages often contain more information than verbal messages, and nonverbal communication by managers is particularly effective. Since you are more closely observed than other members of the organization, the messages implicit in your gestures, displays, and actions are more effectively transmitted. Because you have more freedom of movement within the organization's territory and more autonomy in arranging the personal space around you, you have, in effect, a larger nonverbal vocabulary then other people. Your responsibility for conduction organizational rituals requires others to imitate you, and you can also specify gestures, displays, and actions in which you may not be imitated. This last sounds maor abstruse than it is. In most organizations, the manager's salary cannot be matched or exceeded by any other salary; on the other hand, the manager who sets his own salary imposes an upper limit on all salaries paid by the organization. The size and furnishings of your office, the cost of your official car, the length of your vacation, and the extent of your outside affiliations are all like to have the similar effect of setting limits to the pretensions of your subordinates. It is almost impossible to enumerate all the ways in which nonverbal messages can be conveyed, but the most important media include spatial arrangements, movements from one place to another, appearances and nonappearances a ceremonies, allotments of time, security measures, sociability patterns, personal gestures, and costumes, The variety of these media make nonverbal communication highly entertaining for those involve , but there is always some danger of being misunderstood or of showing more than one wants to tell. Lit would be laborious to look at each type of nonverbal expression separately, but we can get a pretty good idea of how they work by examining a few types from the standpoint of the manager who understands their possibilities. Expressive Movement in Organizations The study of expressive movements, body placement, gestures, and other body sighs ought to be practice by every manager of an organization, Excluded from full participation in the grapevine and with little information about the private sentiments of subordinates, you must often rely on your unaided observation to discover what everybody esse in the organization already knows. On the other hand, you have exceptional opportunities for observation because you see so many people and are able to choose the setting in which you will see them. Consider the opportunities for observation in the routine conference a manager might hold with sex or seven subordinates, The order of arrival is significant. Early arrival generally signifies eagerness to participate. And lateness or absence usually indicates some reluctance connected with the business at hand, or some mistrust of the other participants. People who arrive together and deep in conversation are either announcing a coalition or concealing a quarrel. The selection of seats is significant. Even in a meeting with fixed seating arrangements, small variations a place skipped, a chair shoved to one side or the other are significant. People who crowd close to the chairman are likely to be seeking his or her support, Those who isolate themselves at the other end of the table may be girding for battle. A real fight, as distinct from a difference of opinion, usually aligns people into visible factions. Positions at the end of a long table or in the middle of a side table are taken by people who intend to participate actively. while the corners are occupied by those who want to remain inconspicuous. Over a period of some years I attended business conferences in room with an oval table and an equal number of black chairs and white chairs. There was a feeble standing joke about the good guys sitting in white chairs and the bad guys in black chairs but, juke or not, several odd little customers developed out of the necessity for each participant to choose a black or a white chair at the beginning of each meeting. The white chairs came to be associated with optimism, growth, and good news; the black chairs with disapproval, reorganization, and financial stringency. In this way, participants signaled in advance the general tone of their contribution to a particular meeting. People on the same side of a controversial issue were likely to choose like-colored chairs. The occasional efforts of individuals to adopt one color or the other permanently and thus avoid the choice were detected by the other participants and subjected to the kind of pointed joking by which violations of etiquette are corrected. Expressive movements such as gestures, smiles and frowns, the placement of arms and legs, seated posture, fiddling and doodling, scratching and yawning, crossed glances, looking toward or away from a speaker, tones of voice, and the length and character of silences, serve in any meeting to amplify and clarify what is said and may indeed be more informative than any of the words spoken. The first thing for you to do as manager in a conference is to look and to listen. If these demanding activities keep you from talking as much as you would like, so much the better. How to Recognize Effective Communication The volume of communication and the degree of consensus required differ from one type of organization to another, but if and when you achieve effective communication, you will observe that 1. The routine operational reposts that reach you are seldom late and never falsified. 2. When you ask for a special report on some phase of the organizational program, you are never told that the information exists but cannot be assembled without excessive trouble or expense. 3. Your own formulations of organizational policies and problems are often repeated back to you by other people. 4. You seldom find yourself in disagreement with the priorities assigned to problems by your subordinates. 5. You are usually comfortable at meetings and conferences within the organization, whether you preside or attend as a visitor. 6. When you engage in consultation about a problem, you invariable learn new and important things, but they are not the kind of new things that make you change your whole picture of the organization. 7. When you make an important decision, the grapevine carries the news throughout the organization before an official announcement can be made. 8. The public speeches and actions of your subordinates seldom embarrass you. 9. Your subordinates often suggest a plan you have been turning over in your mind, or install a new procedure you have been about to suggest. 10. There are many things going on in the organization that you know nothing about, but they do not make you apprehensive. 11. The relatively few grievances that come to you can be promptly and vigorously handled without disrupting the organization. 12. You have very few secrets, and those you have can be safely confided to your close associates. 13. You have no regular talebearers at lower levels of the organization, and do not want any. 14. There is no part of the organization from which you cannot obtain routine communications or which fail to respond to you routine communications. 15. Misunderstandings and mistakes in communication between yourself and various parts of the organization occur quite frequently, but do not stay undetected. MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES Chapter 1 What an Organization Is An organization is a social system established to carry out a purpose. It consists of a number of people in a pattern of relationships. The pattern is not entirely dependent on a particular person who belong to the organization at a given time. The organization assigns a position to each of its members, and the incumbent of a position has a set part to play in the organization's concert. Every organization has a program and a set of planned activities that can go well or badly. If they consistently go well, the organization thrives. If theygo badly, it disappears or is restructured for another try. The manager of an organization is the person who has the primary responsibility for making its activities go well. An organization a program always involves considerably more than one central activity. Whether the central activity is a production process, a game, a fight or a ceremony, the organization must also maintain its internal structure, keep its employees happy, and adapt to changes in the external environment. In addition, the manager of any organization has a personal problem of establishing authority, In discussing problems, we will view the situation first, since unless the manager can keep the right to manage, the other parts of the managerial assignment quickly become irrelevant. The first chapter is about understanding Organizations and their synergistic affect on one another. It does the organization little good, however, for the manager to establish authority unless that authority is used to hold the organization together and achieve its purposes. Holding the organization together does not imply that all employees of the organization will have identical goals and agree about how to achieve them, but it does require them to agree sufficiently for the organization to pursue its collective goals in a unified way. This limited agreement results from continuous communication up. Down, and sideways within the organization. Most of this communication foows through established channels, formal or informal, and is modified in predictable ways by these channels. All this is discussed in the second chapter, "Communication." However, communication is not an end in itself. It is a means of getting the organization's job done, which is of course, what management is all about. A manager is someone who supervises the work of others and can, by his or her own actions, increase or diminish their productivity. In practice, there are two quite different modes of supervision direct and indirect, and they call for somewhat different strategies. In addition to the problem of routine supervision, there are all sorts of special problems that appear in any division of labor and interfere with the efficiency or the effictiveness of a work group. These situations are considered in the productivity area. The belief that productivity and morale are necessarily correlated is part of the folklore of organization. Like most folklore, it contains a grain of truth, Sudden increases in productivity are likely to stimulate short-ter improvements of morale, and vice versa. But the general relationship between productivity and morale is more complex. As empirical studies in diverse types of organization have shown, high morale often accompanies low productivity, and crises of morale may be brought about by rising productivity. There is always some significant relationship be tween the output of and organization and emotions of its members, but the relationship is for too intricate to suggest that productivity and morale are interchangeable. The managerial policies that sustain morale are decribed in "Morale." No organization, however limited its goals, can safely ignore the larger social systems from which it draws its people and its resources. Every organization endeavors to control the external environment, but no matter how large, rich, or sacred it becomes, it cannot develop any real immunity to changes in the external environment. Some of these external changes are attributable to the organization's own activities; some results from long-term trends and can be anticipated in a general way; some are so surprising that they cannot be imagined until they have actually occurred. In a complex, modern society, this last category is nearly inexhaustible. The unanticipated effects of legislation, technology, political upheavals, moral fashions, migration and other forms of mobility; innovations in transportation communication, entertainment; the movement of prices, and the fluctuation of scarcities now guarantee a fairly adventurous history to even the most insulated and reclusive organizations, such as craft union and boarding schools. The problems that arise s this way cannot be as neatly resolved as some of those discussed other arenas. Management Principles All human organizations resemble each other so closely that much of what is learned by managing one organization can be applied to managing any other organization. Every organization, for example, has a collective identity; a roster of employees, friends, and antagonists; a program activity and a schedule time to go with it ; a table or organization; a set of formal rules partly contradicted by informal rules; procedures for adding and removing members; utilitarian objects used for organizational tasks; symbolic objects used in organizational rituals; a history; a special vocabulary; some elements of folklore; a territory; and a method of placing members within that territory according to their relative importance. Every organization has a division of labor that allocates specialized tasks to it members and a status order that awards them unequal shares of authority, honor, and influence. Every organization except the very smallest is a cluster of sub-organizations of varying sizes, which are organizations in their own right and have all of the features stated above. Some sub-organizations are departments of the parent organization; some are illegitimate factions of it; some are formally independent of it, like a union local in a factory or attached to it temporarily, like an orchestra hired for a club dance. The important thing to remember about sub-organizations is that their goals are never completely compatible with the goals of the parent organization. It is seldom possible to reform a sub-organization for the benefit of the parent organization without encountering resistance. On the other hand, it is quite impossible to manage a large organization without occasionall offendin, damaging, or destroying some of its sub-organizations. The probles of managing a large organization are similar to the problems of managing a large organization are similar to the problems of managing a small or medium-sized organization, if only because every large organization is run by a managerial oligarchy which is itself a small organization ther is no other way to do it. Problems of communication, data retrieval, and public relations are necessarily more complex in a large organization, but there are more people to help with them too. Running a large organization should not require more of your time and effort than running a small organization. If it does, something is probably wrong with the way your job is set up or with you personal style. During any given interval in an organization's history, it will be growing, stable, or declining. Some organizations. Such as business corporations, normally strive for growth but do not always achieve it. Somne, such as exclusive clubs, attempt to avoid either growth or decline. Other, such as legislatures and baseball teams, have a fexed numer of member although the number of assistants and and supernumeraries can vary. Sill other, such as social movements past their peak, continue to operate for long periods of time while decling in size. The task of management is easiest in a growing organization because growth itself whatever its real cause is usually viewed as a sign of managerial success and because the input of new resources occasioned by growth can be used to pay for mistakes. Managing a stable organization is a more difficult task and calls for a finer adjustment of means and ends. Careful decision-making, and alertness to the external environment. The management of a declinging organization may be easy or hare, depending upon whether the decline is regarded as inevitable. In the face of an inevitable decline, standards of managerial performance may be low. In the case of a decline that is regarded as reversible, the task of the manager is always difficult and sometimes impossible. Most organizations find it harder to satify one of their goal than others, for reason beyond their control, When this is the case, the manager's success with the critical goal is the thing that matters, while the achievement of other goals is overlooked or taken for granted. Maintaining authority is critical, for example, in a prison or penitentiary; maintaining employees is what counts in a civic association; as director of a summer camp you are judged almost exclusively by whether you can keep up morale; as coach of a football team that can win all its games you need not worry about much else. Every type of organization tends to develop managers who are overspecialized in the accomplishment of one assignment and who minimize their their other responsigilities until this neglect catches up with them in the shape of rebellion, schism, bankruptcy, or reform by outsiders.. Many organizations develop crises is a situation in which the priorities of management are forcibly rearranged by some unforeseen combination of circumstances. The qualities that you, as manager, are called upon to display in a crisis may be quite different from those routinely required. Our system is build up of many micro situation that mushroom into macro situation: College presidents are called on for personal courage, prison wardens are asked top show Christian charity, long-term planners are compelled to make snap decisions. Skill and luck play equal parts in the management of crisis. The skill can be practiced, but not the luck, so that why a few well-handled major crises may strengthen an organization and its leadership, a long series of crises will almost certainly ruin it. If you, as a manager, perceive your role as " putting out fires," then you are a poor manager and ought to be replaced by someone who attaches more importance to fire prevention. The fundamental procedures for preventing organizational crises are early detection and the rehearsal of drills that transform crises into routine problems. Not only does the crises transform our world and our envolvement with many organization, our world will be forever bridged to the many organizations we encounter daily. Understanding the Organization The question comes to mind as such for answers to theory x: are individuals motivated to work. Or instead, theory y: are individuals forced to work? Individuals are literally, forced to work in order to survived. A job enable individuals to live out the American dream. However, if given a chance to work from the vantage point of our strengths as well as our passion, everyone will be motivated to work, motivation stem from passion. I advocate that we find our passion and enjoy life's cycle, fortunately, because, for the rest of our lives, we will be involved with many types of organizations. Consider a day in the life of my daughter, Monica Williams, a young lady who could be your next-door neighbor. Monica's clock radio wakes her up with the latest news at 5 A. M. The news is being broadcast by a radio station organization. While Monica is pouring the milk in her oatmeal, she receives a telephone call, In using the telephone, Monica is interacting with a system developed and operated by a public utility organization. Monica realizes that she is running late, she dress hurriedly and dashes out to meet her car pool,., Designed to meet the needs of its members, the car pool is also an organization. Monica and her co-workers arrive on time at the hospital where they are employed. The hospital, too, is an organization. In fact, the hospital is really many organizations in one. Monica's department, quality control, functions very much like a small, self-contained organization… The hospital contains about hundreds of other departments that also function as separate organizations. All of these separate units, however, belong to the larger organization-the hospital. After a long day, eight hours in the hospital, Monica comes home in the car pool. She suggests to her husband that that they go out to a restaurant for dinner.. The restaurant is run as an organization that exists to feed its customers. After dinner Monica and her husband head for the bowling lanes, where their league is playing in a tournament. The bowling league is another organization created to serve the recreational needs of bowlers. Monica's league wins the tournament. They decide to celebrate by stopping by the local tavern for a bear. The tavern is another recreational organization. After the second bear, Monica's husband suggests that they go home to the kids. The Williams, operate as an organization. Any typical family functions very much like the many organizations Monica has been involved with, directly or indirectly, during her routine day. In almost every social encounter, we are influenced by one or more organization. Organizations enable us to achieve many of our goals. We earn our living, enjoy our recreation. Received an education and worship through organization. Nonetheless, we will focus on the communication behavior demonstrated by the employees of organization. How do individual communicate in the organization? What types of communication skills are important for effective participation in the organization? Communication may be defined as the sending and receiving of information among individual. It involves the spoken word and the written word as well as the nonverbal aspects of information sending. In considering three communication skills: speaking, writing, and listening. Firt, we will examine the nature of organizations and their impact upon humans. Second we will learn what organizations are. Next, we will discuss the thins that organizations have in commin. Finally, we will study the things that organizations routinely do. This treatment of the nature of organizations. Is intended to provide you with clear understanding of the way in which organizations operate. You need to know this before you can develop communication skills for the use of in organizations. WHAT ARE ORGANIZATIONS? Organizations are unique. In this part we are going to learn why. Let us examine some of the most important characteristics of the organization. To Jurgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson communication would include: all of those processes by which people influence one another…this definition is based on the premise that all actions and events have communication aspects, as soon as they are perceived by a human being…and that such perception changes the information which an individual possesses and therefore influences him. Organizations are Dynamic Like human beings, organizations are dynamic. They are ongoing, ever-changing, constantly forced to meet new challenges, they are continual adapting to rapidly varying conditions in their environment. For example, consider the situation of the private liberal arts college in the United States. Private Colleges have traditionally b been identified as schools for the rich, on the other hand, public colleges and universities have been seen as middle-class schools, where families of moderate income could afford to send their children. However, as economic condition have changed, many private colleges have had to make drastic changes to stay in business. Costs associated with higher education have risen rapidly. Private colleges have tried to attract applications from less affluent students. They have suggested that the bright, capable, middle-class young student with some help from the family, a part-time job on campus, and a partial scholarship can probably afford to attend a private college, In short, they have had to appeal to new constituencies in order to survive. In addition, the public colleges, have found themselves enrolling many students from affluent families, because these families no longer had enough money to send their children to the best private colleges. As economic conditions fluctuate, the rules for these organizations have changed. To survive, they must be dynamic enough to adapt. Otherwise, they will probably find themselves out of business. There are three ways in which organization must remain dynamic, changing markets, changing technologies, and changing economy. Changing markets, Organizations must be dynamic enough to meet changing markets. Since most organizations market some type of product or service, they must be sensitive to their potential customers' changing attitudes and predispositions. If thered is no market for the organization's product or services the organization will not survive. Changing Technologies, For an organization to be successful, it must be able to accomplish a particular job. This job is called its task. The methods that an organization uses to accomplish its task are called technologies. Technologies change drastically over very brief periods of time. Consider the way in which and organization pays its employees. Up until a few years ago, payroll was a major job of the bookkeeping department. Numerous clerks and bookkeepers would work many hours to insure that payroll checks were properly recorded and dispersed. However, sophisticated programs now exist that enable an organization to disperse and record payroll by computer.. This frees many hours for employees to work on other task. Changing economy All organizations need financial resources to remain in business. Therefore, economic conditions are a crucial influence on the operations of the organization. Organizations must pay attention to almost every facet of the economy.. The availability of money for expansion, resources to use as raw materials, and the cost of labor all play an important role in the development of the organization. In or society, most things cost something. To be able to exist, the organization must be prepared to pay whatever it takes to stay in operation. The family organization that cannot meet its financial obligation must file for bankruptcy just like the large corporation in the same situation. Organizations must remain dynamic to adjust to changing financial conditions. Organizations informs Organizations are designed to inform. All organizations need information to survive. It is by exchanging information that one part of an organization learns about the duties and activities of another aspect of the organization. Organization can be thought of as information processing unit. Unfortunately, without exchanging information, organizations do not have the know-how to change raw materials into final products or services into what makes the individual or group survive the task. What exactly is meant by the phrase exchange of information? Consider the case of a typical college fraternity. This fraternity has a number of subgroups called standing committees. Each standing committee operates more or less autonomously. However, for the fraternity to function effectively, each standing committee must share its information with the others. This can be done in several ways.. Perhaps all of the chairs have a weekly meeting to report on their respective committees' activities. Perhaps information is transferred during the regular fraternity meetings. Perhaps the committee members compare notes informally during class and at other fraternity activities. As the standing committees share information, support, and complete with each other, important relationships develop among them. Without these relationships among subgroups, organizations cannot be successful. The maintenance of these relationships depends on the mutual exchange of information. It is equally important for the organization to obtain information from its environment. Important events that occur outside are crucial to the infra structure operation of the organization. If an organization needs capital to build a new factory but cannot get it because the economy is tight, dilemmas develop. If an organization continues to make a product that no one buys or provides a service no one subcribe to.because it has been declared illegal, that organization cannot continue to operate. If an organization depends on a particular skill to make its produce, and if people who possess this skill are not available in the labor marketplace, the organization will suffer. To prevent situations such as these from accruing, the organization must acquire information that exist in the environment and transmit it internally. If it has no member who can do this, the organization will find itself in a serious situation.. The communication skills of members perception, listening, planning. Organizing, and presenting are all essential to the organization. It is crucial to know that that the transfer of information within the organization and among organizations and its environment is also vital to the health of the organization. What is an Organization Organization are groups of people who associate together for a common purpose. This is what distinguishes organizations from other social phenomena. Any Group of people who coordinate their behavior to achieve a goal may be said to be operating as an organization. Most organizations exist to do a particular thing. Public speaking organizations exist to train individuals to speak and communicate more effectively. Service organizations exist to provide a service to those who need it. Religious organizations exist to promulgate their own brand of gospel. Therefore, the goal of an organization is the thing that the organization exists to do. In order to achieve its goal, the organization behaves in ways that will most effectively be conducive in achieving its goal. All employees in the organization share a concertive effort in achieving the organizations' objective; all employees or the organization share the same goal for that organization; everyone agrees as to which behaviors will be conducive to achieve that goal; and everyone is motivated to behave consistently with the goal.. I someone disgree about the appropriateness of the goal or the most viable method for achieving it, situation will occur. The employees must perceive an importance of the goal before they will work diligent to achieve it. In many cases, employees are counterproductive to the organization goal, example, if a worker thinks that his organization is polluting the environment may believe that his work is injurious to other people. Consequently, this worker may spend his time avoiding his job as much as possible, which is a hinderance to the organization objective (s). STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION Every organization have rules these rules are called structure. Structure enables the organization to standardize work procedures and to specialize the tasks associated with the production processes. The organization is put in place to help the organization in doing its job well. However, sometimes the structure, of the organization comes in conflict with the good of the individual. As individuals gain new talents and new sophistications, they become increasingly valuable to the organization.. It is sound management practice to try to keep these people. The secretary who is hired primarly as a clerical worker but eventually gains a management position is helping not only herself or himself, but the organization as well. As its people grow, so grows the organization. Sometimes organizations try to foster and encourge this growth through training programs and promotional opportunities. Other times, individuals themselves gailn knowledge and expertise without official sanction. An example would be the first-lin supervisor who returns to college to earn a degree in management and becomes one the organizations top managers. As a manager this employee is more valuable to the company. Structure within an organization is conducive to the organization controlling its own destiny. Communication skills play as important role in the development and growth of human resources. Supevisors and managers must be able to take the opportunities for growth. They must also be willing to tell their subordinates about the opportunities for career advancement. In addition, this information must be transmitted in such a way that it is understandable to organizational personnel superiors must instill the ilmportance and relevance of the growth opportunities to them as well as the organization. TASK EXPERTISE An organization is viewed as a series of structured tasks that must be accomplished in order to achieve its purpose. These tasks, in many cases, are all interrelated. Example, a baseball team is an organization with a purpose to win. For the team to win, certain task must be done. For example, there must be a strong pitching. Infact, thils particular task may be subdivided even further, There must be both stron left-handed and strong right-handed pitching. There must also be a good infield and a strong outfield, There must be a good catcher.. t my grandsons (Shelton Waters, and Shannon Rice) plays in a little league baseball teams. The team must be strong on defense (catching the ball) and strong on offense (hitting the ball). Even if the team is strong on the field, success will come only if it is equally stron in the dugout. There must be a good bench player, also, ready to replace the regulars on the field, A group of dependable relief pitchers is necessary, should the starters falter. Avove all, there must be good management. Some one individual must be responsible for inserting players, changing pitchers, and so forth. If any one task in this organization breaks down, the team will not winl This analogy holds for just about every organization. Generally, it is people who perform the tasks in an organization. However, because people have thoughts, attitudes, and feelings, they sometimes fail to accomplish their tasks. Tasks are accomplished when people know what to do and want to do. Occassionally and individual will kno what to do but will want to do it. For instance, a baseball player may know how to play center fiend well, but because he believes he is underpaid, hemay not want to do the job. Sometimes the opposite also happens an individual may want to do the job but does not know how. Methoporically, it might be possible to call up a player from the minor leagues who sincerely wants to play center field, But he may not have the skill to do the job. Unfortunately, both lack of dire and lack of talent can prevent tasks in organizations from being accomplished. However, it is fortunate, that organization can develop training programs to give the individual expertise in a particular task. Communication skills play a vital role in developing task expertise. Tood communication skills help trainers to explain methods and techniques clearly. These skills also help trainers to understand and apply what they hear in training programs. The situation of motivation is a more difficult one. Here communication enables the organization to explain to individuals why they should accomplish the task. Ilnformation about the potential rewards of accomplishing a task can also be communicated. This, too, may increase motivation COMMITMENT As you may have encountered, Organizations often as and sometimes expect contributions "above and beyond the call of duty." Consider the case of the business executive who will spend eighteen hours working on a report, the minister who spends five nights a week calling on the sick, or the college professor who spends every weekend in his study working on a textbook. These are examples of the kind of devotion that some people bring to their organizations. As one rises in the hierarchy, the organization increasingly begins to expect( and sometimes even demand) this kind of commitment. People render it for a variety of reason. Some people truly love their job and would rather work than do anything else. Some people want to get ahead and see this kind of commitment as a way of doing so. Some people see their own personal goals as being linked to those of the organization, so that by giving this kind of commitment, they are really working for themselves. Communication skills are important in developing commitment. Managers must offer reasons why subordinates should be committed. Information about the benefits of commitment should be exchanged. As people perceive the rewards of commitment, they may well begin to demonstrate it. ENERGY AND CONTROL As we know, organization, like people need energy to function effectively. And on the other hand, the organization need control. As we have seen, the organization is always changing. This does not mean that the change is always random. There may well be an element of random change. But normally change will be controlled and planned. One of management's main jobs is to control and direct human behavior. People sometimes demonstrate random energy, and this may have to be controlled. But the mechanical energy of an organization must be controlled as well. Organizations that can control energy can sometimes initiate change before they are forced to do so by existing conditions. These organizations are said to be proactive, able to control their own destiny. A proactive organization is a leader in its fields. ORGANIZATIONS CULTURE Many organizations develop their own cultures. Stories, anecdotes, and social histories of an organization constitute its culture. We are exposed to a company's culture when we go to work for it. Others who are already working there tell us how to function, who to "watch out for," and "the lowdown on the really nice things about working here>" These are all culture phenomena. Often an organization's storied past will influence how it functions. Apple computer, for years, was known as a counterculture organization because it was started by two young men in a garage in Northern California. Now, under a new but traditional management team, the counterculture tag is part of Apple's "acient History." Organizations with long and colorful histories will probably be different in climate from those that are young. Regardless of the content, organizations do develop cultures. The communication of the culture of the organization takes place through both written and oral channels. Such devices as annual reports and pamphlets detail; but the primary means of transmission takes place orally. Because an organization does not usually want to commit negative aspects of its culture to writing, the written culture is sanitized. Through word-of-mouth, however, much gets communicated. We learn about the culture of an organization through listening to what people are saying. The better our listening skill, the more proficient we become in monitoring and absorbing culture the better communicators we become. Nonetheless, culture do exist and they certainly influence the "feel" of the organization and how employees communicate with one another. People in organizations are often called upon to make public presentations in front of groups. This public communication takes many forms. A manager will be called up to welcome new employees… A teacher will discuss a new curriculum proposal with a group of colleagues. A department head will have to defend the department's budget to a board of directors. All of these situations require the communicator to demonstrate good presentational skills. Presentational skills are important in organizational communication. Normally, a member of an organization will communicate in dyads and small groups more often than in public situation. However, when the member is called upon to make that public presentation, it is usually in a formal setting with a large audience, Sometimes many attitudes will be formulated or changed as a result of the presentation. However, it is important to develop and refine one's public communication skill. Written Communication Many books about communication consider only oral or only written interaction. Good communication in organization need both oral and written communication skills. Writing is a vital communication skill. Organizations typically develop volumes of written material every day to disseminate information downward as well as upward the mobility ladder within the organization The memorandum, the production report, the newsletter, the brochure all play a role in the organization's communication program. Characteristices of communication Communication is dynamic and ongoing, A famous communication theorist once said, "You can never not communicate." Although the statement might contain too many negatives to accommodate the English grammarian, it is indeed profound. The concept goes like this: Because we receive communication stimuli almost constantly from a wide variety of sources, the process of giving and receiving information is taking place constantly all around us. Think back to the time when you attended your last football game. The pageantry, the weather, the person you were (or ere not) attending the game with, the condition of the playing field, the quality of the hot dogs all probably influenced you as much as the football played down on the field. Information from thousands of events and combinations of events, both past and present, is processed by our cognitive structure. Purpose Communication , Communication helps people get what they want. It may help them to reach goals or to obtain social reinforcement, as we have seen. But people also adjust to their environment and make sense out of their surroundings via communication. When we are cast into a new or different situation, we feel uncertain or confused at first. We begin to reduce this uncertainty through communication We interact with others, we seek out information to provide us with input about our new environment, and we think through our own background and experience to retrieve information that may be helpful to us now. Eventually. When all this information starts coming in, we begin to adjust and feel more comfortable in our surroundings. Social Communication As we try to bring some certainty to our environment, we begin to develop skills that enable us to interact with others. It is through this interaction that we reach others and enable others to reach us. Communication becomes the vehicle through with we test out our perceptions and ideas with others. In so doing, we learn whether our view of the world is consistent with the views of others. The old adages" Man is a social animal" and "No man is an island" speak to the aspect of the human spirit. All of us need others. And this need is satisfied through communication. Complex Communication, We view the basics of survival water, food, and shelter as fairly simple, but communication is also basic to survival. Communication, however, is far form simple, primarily, because it is human beings who do the communicating. People make communication complex because people themselves are complex and involved in the process of sending and receiving vague information. People will hear not what was said, but what they think was said. Rarely will an individual convey completely objective information with out adding some element of the subjective. For these reasons communication con not be considered as exact science. The study of communication must eventually lead to the study of other aspects of human behavior. Such as personality, attitude, motivation, and learning What Does Communication Help Us Do Communication enables us stay in control and do certain things constructively. It enable us to grow, to learn, to become cognizance or ourselves, and to adjust to our environment. When we can control things we are on the road to good mental health. Growth We develop and grow by communication with other in our environment. And we occasionally change our environment using communication to help us grow in new surroundings. We gain this information about things. Places and other people through communication. As we internalize more ideas, we grow as people. Learning Closely related to individual growth is the process of learning. Learning, in this context, means the accumulation of information. Growth, on the other hand, involves the total personality of the individual. Almost all instructions utilize some form of communication. Cognitive We become aware of who we are primarily through communication.. People tell us thins about ourselves that we use to monitor our development as people. We gain input that tells us if we are successful in our behavior exchange with others. We develop a sense of our heritage and of our potential through communication. Who you are today is the product of thousands of communication exchanges that you have experienced throughtout you life. Procedures of Grievance The hearing of grievances is another type or managerial consultation. In many organizations, the grievance procedure is virtually the only channel through which the managers obtain information about morale, motivation, and conflict at lower levels of the organization. The settlement of grievances can be highly rewarding for both the manager and the organization, but it is intrinsically difficult and requires much more than simple goodwill. A grievance is a complaint plus a request for redress. All organizations are full of complaints openly expressed to peers and sometimes to outsiders, but relatively few of them turn into grievances by being attached to a request for redress. The non -directive interview that were part of the famous. Western Electric study collected eighty thousand complaints from workers in one industrial plant during a single year and classified them neatly into objectively verifiable complaints, subjective complaints, and non-logical complaints. The Western Electric investigators concluded that the underlying attitude of the complaints, subjective complaints, and illogical complaints, The Western Electric investigators concluded that the underlying attitude of the complainants toward their work and their associates was often more significant in accounting for complaints than the particular conditions complained of the mere opportunity to complain to a receptive listener connected with management had a favorable effect on morale, after telling that complaints to the interviewer, workers often perceived an improvement to the condition complained about even though no objective change had occurred. These effects have been confirmed in subsequent studies and used to organizational counseling programs. A particularly interesting factory study carried out to England by workers against their foremen could by dissolved by a patterned system of eliciting and discussing complaints without changing the behavior of the foremen in any way. How many of an organization's circulating complaints turn into active grievances depends upon their volume and intensity, the receptivity of management to grievances, its reputation for fairness, the attitudes of particular managers, and the presence or absence of third parties. A high grievance rate is always a bad sign, but an abnormally low grievance rate is suspicious. Rensis Likert, in his New Patterns of Management, presented statistical evidence to show that industrial workers who are hostile to the enterprise in which they work seldom submit grievances. The same study also showed that people at each level of management overestimate the extent to which their subordinates feel free to express grievances, giving themselves much higher marks for accessibility than they deserve, while rating their own superiors much lower than themselves in this respect. Well-run organizations have only a small number of grievances, and management reacts to them promptly and vigorously. Most of these grievances fall into a few simple categories that are part of every manager's experience. The most common grounds for grievances are quarrels between superiours and subordinates. Discrimination against an individual or a group, breaches of the organization's rules, and neglect of organizational duties. To handle grievances, you many establish an open-door policy whereby anyone in the organization can approach you with a grievance at any time, or authorize a walking delegate to bring you grievances on behalf of the ran-and file, or turn over all grievances to an internal tribunal. Some managers follow a closed-door policy, whereby grievances are referred back to lower levels of the organization or simply ignored. This latter policy, although widely practiced. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The genesis of the apartment management grew out of the first major social upheaval of the modern era. The place of the renters were opened to the public by the revolutionaries as a national living arena belonging to all the people of that society. In addition to the new society in America the louver became an attraction and influenced renters from around the world. One renter saw the advantage of renting opposed to buying. Most settlers were undecided as to where they wanted to call home, north, east and west. Many saw the new wave of living a means of as well as a vehicle for a better life of their own choosing. The new comers wanting very much to take advantage of their new found power (choice). To stimulate the nuclear-style of life, it is requisite that our public should have free access to move and choose as they wish. In addition, they had a choice of schools, church in which they wish to attend Unfortunately, fiancé was their biggest situation. However, because of financial distress the ability of the apartment way of living was to serve the public has not kept pace with the public's interest. This is in spite of the fact that apartment are the wealthiest form of American collecting institutions. As pointed out by owner It is something of a paradox, then, that the anguished circle of financial distress issue for the most part from nuclear living and a great number of families dividing as a result. Apartment complex averages a large amount of residual income. However, many apartment owner have had to dip into endowment capital. In city after city leading complex owner have been forced to foreclose due to insufficient fund. To curtail service, and to tighten rental condition. Mandatory or "suggested" entry fees have been increased. In order to move in to an apartment the rent is doubled plus other fees. The apartment industry's ability to serve the public has not kept pace with the public's interest because of what is called the extended family tradition. As pointed out by Alexander (1979, p. 20) and meyer. Rich and powerful gentlemen in America were the forces that created and maintained the nuclear family. Since these patrons of tradition were answerable only to their own conscience and task in managing organization, they had no doubt as to who was in charge of the rental while traveling to pursue other business deals, there were not question about qualification, and no need for concern about the maintenance of standards. Finances for running the complex were derived simply from personal wealth. The staff in turn had little if any managerial training, particularly in personnel relations, or dealing with difference personalities. Administration and money management however, according most of the owners are in the process of seeking new forms of governance, a process which will affect their traditional foundation, purpose and meaning. This evolving process has been made necessary because of the change in the social, political. And financial context in which apartment complex exist today. As individual wealth, power, and privilege have given way to new divisions of social responsibility between individual and the state, the tradition of personal administrative dictatorship and the consent which made it possible have been eroded. Many maintained that big apartment complex now rely on, to a great extent on public support. First and farmost, these complexes must new managers trained in administration who are open to the scrutiny of an educational background check. In order to have more room for discretionary action, the directorate… tries to isolate the apartment business as far as possible from market or commercial valuations. Application of specialized noncommercial standards helps to minimize the attacks coming from outside, since it makes it very difficult for ordinary renters. Consultation with the Rank-and-File For at least fifty years, organization psychologists and sociologists have insisted that the right way to introduce a new work process or change an old one is to consult the workers involved in the process before, during, and after the innovation in order, (1) to take advantage of their realistic, firsthand knowledge of the work situation, (2) to enlist their willing cooperation, and (3) to obtain prompt feedback about the unanticipated consequences of the innovation. But although this message was enshrined in the textbooks of management, it was, for a long time, not taken seriously in American organizations except in a few companies like IBM that made a fetish of involving workers in the design and redesign of work processes. In most American organizations and officies it continued to be assumed, in the tradition of old-fashioned scientific management, that the rank-and -file workers needed to be shown exactly what to do by somebody brighter than him-or-herself and more committed to the company's goals. Meanwhile, in faraway Japan and in some other countries like West Germany, Sweden, and South Korea, the idea of the routine ongoing participation of workers in the design of their work was being taken much more seriously and applied in all sorts of ingenious ways. At Toyota, for example, the official doctrine was: We believe that an individual job and the way it is performed must be activities into which are woven the original ideas of workers, not the thought of as simply a fixed job which superiors order one to perform. By the beginning of the 1980s this philosophy and some of the other personnesl practices associated with it, like lifetime employment security for blue-collar workers, had given the Japanese a commanding lead over the United States in the manufacture of automobliles, steel, audiovisual equipment, microprocessors, and promised to give them a margin of advantage in any other field of production where they might choose to concentrate their efforts. Other countries too seem to be able to turn out better and cheaper manufactured products than the United States although our industrial superiority to the rest of the world had been taken for granted throughout most of the twentieth century. The gradual revelation of Japanese superiority in manufacturing sent American managers flocking in droves to companies in Tokyo and Osaka to study their secrets. General Motors and Ford bothe introduced massive Quality Circle programs in 1980 that were directly patterned upon Japanese models, Nevertheless, despite all this fanfare, the idea of consulting the rank-and-file still comes hard to the managers of large private enterprixes in the United States and the practice is virtually unknown in government agencies and other public enterprises. Although there are features of Japanese management methods that are peculiar to Japanese culture, the necessity of consulting the workers bout how they ought to do their work is so obvious and elementary that the failure to do it must be taken as a pathological form of irresponsibility. Only the people on the ground know where the bodies are buried. In the telephone company that I studied just before Quality Circles became the fashion in the telephone industry, we introduced something similar called "upward Planning" to remedy certain operationa defects, such as the inability of the business office to reach the repair service by telephone and the habit of assigning the same telephone nember to two or three different customers at the same time. Then planning teams composed of reception clerks, telephone oiperators, linement, repairmen, and others directly involved were brought together to plan organizational improvements to cure these problems, the procedure worked beautifullyt. The form of consultation with the rank-and-file is not that important; what matters is that they be continuously consulted and that their informed judgment be taken into account. After Consultation Just as consultation should precede nearly every managerial decision, the diffusion of information ought to follow every decision as a matter of course. The minimum requirement is that everyone consulted about the decision should be fully informed as soon as it has been made. This principle, although self-evident, is often violated by managers in a hurry or obsessed with secrecy, almost always to their own disadvantage, The general problem of whom to inform about what is shared by everyone from the top to the bottom of every organization, and nearly all of these people occasionally tell some people what they shouldn't know or fail to tell them what they should know. Errors of the first kind usually have trivial consequences for the organization, although they may be serious for individuals. T error of not telling people what they need to know is much more troublesome for the organization because it leads both to inappropriate behavior and hurt feelings. The father of the infant princess who later became the Sleeping Beauty invited all the fairies in his kingdom to the christening feast, but according to the old tale he forgot one important fairy, who was so furious at the slight that she conceled out the other fairies' blessings by putting a curse on the child. This sort of thing happens in large organizations every day, when people who are entitled to be informed about some matter are carelessly overlooked. The manager who shares the problem with everyone else, but his failure to diffuse information have greater effect, partly because he has more information to diffuse, partly because insults from him, like his assistant who carries unusual weight. There is not way to avoid errors of omission completely, but their occurrence can be greatly reduced by constant effort and by using checklists of names. It is nearly impossible for someone at the top of an organization to understand how little of the organization is visible to people at lower levels. It is not uncommon for employee surveys to turn up employees who cannot correctly identify their own supervisors, the departments in which theyt work, or the nature of the enterprise. I was involved in a study conducted many year ago, It found that the majority of officers in an air force division were unfamiliar with the missions of their own units as set down in the organization's manual. The majority of enlisted men could not identify their own jobs and had only an approximate idea of their own duties. Neither junior officers nor enlisted personnel had any clear picture of the division's structure or understood its relationship to the military and civilian agencies with which it had routine contact. The commanding general of the division, and officer famous for his solid achievements and his flamboyant style, found some of these results incredible. "They couldn't not know their own squadron commanders," he objected, "any more than not know me." People in organizations must not be expected to acquire a standard inventory of information by osmosis. They need to have it systematically communicated to them by means of orientation sessions, written materials circulated for study, posted sings, public assemblies, newsletter. And other devices. What is meant to be remembered must then be frequently repeated. Internal orientation is a continuous activity in any well-run organization. Organizations is employees Them members' task is to help the organization determine which things are going to be valuable Understanding the organization is understanding the people who moves the organization, example, and which things should be avoided as potential hazards. In the following example, consider a college basketball organization team. The coach knows that he needs to acquire thing: good high school players who can handle college-level work. A top-flight national schedule playing against good teams, and reputation as a spirited and competent team. At the same time, the coach wants to avoid certain things; high school players who flunk out of college, high-pressure alumni who try to pay inducements to players, and slipshod training and practice procedures. The coach is forced to walk a very narrow line. He must try to acquire the things he wants while avoiding the things he does not want. At first, this may seem like a rather easy task for an organization. But it's not all that simple. The organization must have people who can collect information about potential hazards. To collect information, members must interact in a wide variety of contexts. In the example of the college basketball team, the coach who talks only to a potential recruit's high school coach, while avoiding the boy's high school teachers, counselors and, most importantly, his parents, is probably neglecting valuable sources of information. Communication among people who are gaining information about things in the organization helps the organization to determine which things should be acquired. Organizations must acquired individuals who are willing to work as a team as well as a group. In order for an organization to survive is for subordinate to be able to make decision and for managers to give subordinates the autonomy to communicate his or her ideas. Individuals should be given the opportunity to lead with their strengths, example an individual who write well should be place in a writing position, presentational skills are important in organizational communication, therefore this colleagues skills is needed in the planning or organizing department… In today's organizations, the small group is almost as important as the interview. Modern management techniques have come to emphasize group decision making. Virtually every organization utilizes groups in some form. Such practices as quality circles, team building, and task forces are all attempts to implement group decision making. Employees are encouraged, even demanded to participate in making decisions about their work. Normally, this participation occurs in problem-solving sessions at the workplace. Many of the principles of communication and teamwork are especially relevant to small group interaction. If you are able to practice effective groups, and you are satisfied with your role, your skills will elevate, therefore, you will be a vital intrument of your organazition. Work groups are central to the effective operation of the organization. Therefore, one must develop the skills to interact with other department. Satisfaction is one of the most pertinent aspect of human relation to their organization. When people are unhappy with some aspect of their work situation, they are said to experience job dissatisfaction.. Two important causes of job dissatisfaction are related to communication. First, the worker may thing that he or she does not have adequate information to do the job. Second, interpersonal relations among members of a unit may be poor. Job satisfaction is a very complex area. People enjoy their jobs for many reasons. However, there is little evidence to suggest that good organizational communication will produce satisfied workers, or that satisfied workers will necessarily be productive workers. The two causes of job dissatisfaction identified above can be reduced by communication, however. When the structure of the organization usually through r immediate supervisor has provided us with enough information to enable us to do our job effectively, we feel satisfied. At the more visceral level, we feel satisfied when we like our co-workers and seem to have establish good relationship, as well as teamwork with our co-worker. Managers who encourage subordinates to make their own decision will be most successful. Office Group Assumption Leaving out those few managers who obtain an office by founding a new organization, most new managers are installed as successors to a former manager. An insider who follows a strong predecessor, and outsider who follows a weak predecessor, and an insider who follows a weak predecessor can determine the faith of the organization. The most promising of these situations is that of the outsider who follows a weak predecessor. In that case, the new incumbent is sure of a welcome but is not bound by the predecessor's policy or constrained either to imitate or to aboid the predecessor's style. The least promising situation is that of an insider who follows a strong predecessor, If you imitate the predecessor's style you will appear inadequate or ludicrous to those who knew you in a subordinate capacity, while if you change the style and modify the policies that have been working so well, you will seem foolish and perhaps disloyal. There is no easy way out of this trap. In the long history of hereditary monarch, very few sons of highly successful fathers were successful in turn, except when the son was allowed to assume his duties gradually before the father's disappearance from the scene. Philip 11 of Spain was thus introduced to power by Charles V and Marcus Aurelius by the Emperor Hadrian, two of the rare instances when a great ruler was able to transfer power to an heir without loss of mementum. This solution requires more foresight, good judgment, and generosity on the part of the predecessor than is often to be found. Donald B. Trow's study of executive succession in more than a hundred manufacturing companies found that in a stable, family-owned company in which the manager's son was the potential successor, he was usually regarded as unfit for the job. Without special preparation, the inside successor's best hope is to promise to imitate his great predecessor and then to involve the organization in a conflict, a merger, or some other adventure large enough to change its character. As an insider following a weak predecessor, you may do dairly well if you are the leader of a rebellious faction that overthrew the old regime and if, upon taking office, you treat the adherents of the old regime decisively, removing them or winning them over, as circumstances allow. Unless you can do one or the other, your term of office will be short and uphappy. An insider succeeding a weak predecessor to whom loyalty is owned is in so hopeless a situation that only luck can solve the problem. The most interesting of the four situations is that of an outsider who follows a strong predecessor. This can work out well or badly, and the outcome is largely determined by the new incumbent. If this is your case, then you should try to develop a personal style that contrasts sharply with the style of your predecessor while retaining most of the policies that have made the organization strong. If your predecessor was a frosty autocrat, you can be friendly and outgoing. If bureaucratic procedures have been previously emphasized, your new style may encourage informality. If the former policies emphasized growth, your new watch work might be stability. If your predecessor had a strong personal staff, it can be dismantled; if he or worked alone, the time is ripe to recruit assistants. Such actions, baldly de scribed, seem whimsical, but they work in real life, as shown by such excellent case studies of succession as Alvin Goulder's Patterns of industrial Bureaucracy an Robert H. Guest's Organizational Change. The rationale for a dramatic change of styles is partly psychological and partly structural. Psychologically, you, as the successor, cannot halp to excape unfavorable comparison with your successful predecessor unless you appear to be so different as to make comparison difficult. Structurally, you cannot hope to take over the hirerarchy of support that sustained the authority of your predecessor. In order to gain control of the organization, you have to restructure the existing hierarchy and change the distribution of authority and influence in your own favor. You cannot do this by shifting people around on a large scale. You probable lack authority to do so, and even if you have it. You cannot distinguish you potential friends from you potential foes at so early a stage. The existing hierarchy can be more tactfully, and just as effectively, reorganized by modifying a few key goals. If the prison's purpose is shifted from custody to rehabilitation, or the firm's primary interest from sales volume to profitability, or the college moves from selective to open admissions, the key figures of the old regime will inevitably lose influence an be supplanted by people more beholden or loyal to the new regime. The danger in this strategy is that the former group may perceive the threat and organize a mutiny. Whether such a mutiny is actuall attempted and whether it succeeds in overturning the new regime is largely, although not entirely, determined by the timing of the new manager's actions, the topic to which we turn next. The Idling period Nearly every inauguration, from that of the pope or a president down to that of a restraurant manager or a platoon sergeant, is followed by a idling period during which the new incumbent is almost exempt from criticism and his authority is almost unresisted. It can be used either to ratify the existing organizational structure or to introduce sweeping changes, but it cannot be used for both purposes at once. As the new manager you must make this choice very early. You need not announce your choice, but not to make it is a serious error. To make no innovations at all and to carry on exactly in your predecessor's style is a practicable policy if you are an insider who is following a strong predecessor by whom you were trained and sponsored. In the three other situation, the decision to leave well enough alone is highly questionable. The strategy new managers most often choose is to lie low during the idling. Using the respite to arrange furniture and files, choose assistants, study the organization, and meet the people who matter. The theory behind this strategy is that all serious decisions should be deferred until you, as the new incumbent, have enough information to foresee the consequences of any change you make and enough contacts to provide good feedback. The great defect of this strategy is that it wastes the unique opportunity offered by the idling to make major innovations without arousing major resistance. The strategy of lying low during the idling is appropriate for an outsider following a weak predecessor. If such is the case, your situation is so favorable that you need not hurry to establish your control of the organization, while at the same time you have an acute need for information. The same strategy is clearly advantageous for the insider following a strong predecessor. If you enter office with the direct sponsorship of your predecessor, any changes in style or policy that you introduced early in your term of office will be seen as a kind of disloyalty. If you take office on your own, your initial authority will not be sufficient to innovate safely, and any innovation you attempt may become the occasion of a humiliating setback. Your best hop is to lie low, cultivate friends and supporters, and wait for changes in the organizational climate. The alternative strategy is to use the protection provided by the idling to introduce sweeping changes, including dismissals and reassignments of personnel. This appears to be the optimum strategy for both the outsider who follows a strong predecessor and the insider who follows a weak one, although for somewhat different reasons. The outsider who follows a strong predecessor must establish authority at once or else may never be able to do so. The immunity offered by the honeymoon gives you a chance to demonstrate authority by introducing major changes before the old guard has a chance to begin the mutiny it will inevitably attempt. The only thing that limits your role as a new breed is your ignorance of the organization and the danger that some of your innovations will have disastrous results. You can protect your self against this danger by emphasizing changes of style and general policy and avoiding projects that require detailed implementation. Your reign of terror ought to be highly selective and limited to a small number of potential opponents. The other key figures in the organization, having been edified by these examples, should be encouraged and supported in every possible way. If you are an insider following a weak predecessor you should follow a similar policy during the honeymoon except that, since your position is shakier and your authority more questionable at the beginning, your program of innovation should be as comprehensive as the circumstances allow and should emphasize changes of policy over changes of style. A selective reign of terror is inadvisable for someone already involved in the organization's network of friendships and antagonisms. Either you must attempt to remove all your potential opponents, which will ruin you in nine cases out of ten, or you must try to win then over by forgiving and forgetting past differences, this police, too, will often be ruinous; but any insider following a weak predecessor is slated for trouble anyway, and the odds, such as they are favor a conciliatory approach. So critical is the honeymoon for a new manager that by the time it ends, either by the accumulation of petty issues or the eruption of a major crisis, your eventual success or failure may be already assured. It is much easier for you to guarantee failure by your own actions than to guarantee success, which is subject to factors outside your control.. Your eventual downfall as a manager is predictable if you hav not secured control of the organization's finances by the end of the honeymoon. The power of the purse is the fundamental prerogative of management in a government. As a newly inaugurated leader who expects to be preoccupied by statesmanship or polyphony you may be shocked to discover that money has become your principal concern and will remain so as long as you remain in charge. It is possible that you rose to office by displaying other abilities, and that you regard finance as the grubby business of bookkeepers and accountants; but you had better recognize that money is what management is mostly about and train yourself quickly to you new trade. There is no way of managing an organization successfully without exerting effective control over its expenditures. Practically speaking, this mean that you, as the new manager of an organization, must study its accounts until you know all about the sources of its funds, how they are kept, how disbursements are authorized and audited, and how much authority you have with respect to each type of transaction . This course of study may be full of sad surprises, either because the organization is less solvent than it appears, or because fiscal control has drifted into other hands and cannot easily be recovered, or because a pattern of fixed expenses inherited from the past or imposed by outsiders limits the scope of managerial action. The unpleasantries, whatever they are, need to be learned, absorbed, and built into the framework of decision-making. Usuaslly, when you have done you home work and learned the location the finances you will have to engage in several sharp scuffles to gain possession of them. How to keep them in possession, once secured, is a problem that requires close attention to the table of organization. Organization Table A table of organization is a chart that shows all the positions in an organization and the relationships of authority and responsibility by which they are connected, The trick of describing an organization by such a chart, with its little boxes connected by vertical and horizontal lines, is relatively modern the earliest know example comes from around 1900 but the underlying idea is as old as the pyramids. Nearly every serious discussion of an organization, including the discussion a new manager has with friends or sponsors before accepting the jov, starts by laying out the table of organization. The table of organization does not tell us everything there is to know about the organizational structure, but no one seriously expects it to do so. Among the omitted details are most of the relationships between people who have no authority or responsibility with respect to each other, but must coordinate their activities anyway. Also omitted by definition are the informal norms which, in every organization, concentrate more authority in certain positions than the table of organization anticipates; and all the personal preferences, alliances and coalitions, exchanges of favors, interferences by outsiders, and customary breaches of the rules that develop in every organization. What the table of organization does include, however, cannot be ignored by a manager without inviting immediate trouble. Nearly every table of organization has distinctive peculiarities not shared by organizations of other types, or even by other organizations of the same type. Being a sort of social machine, it has in most cases been deliberately designed for its functions. Like any other machine, it may be well or badly designed, cumbersome or streamlined, wasteful or economical, modern or antiquated. From the manager's standpoint, a good table of organization is one that makes it difficult. Since you are preoccupied with gaining authority upon taking office, your first review of the table of organization will probably focus on the question of how much authority you are allowed. The proper design of tables of organization is the most controversial topic in modern management theory. The principle points on which experts disagree are; the relative advantages of centralized and decentralized authority; and the desirability of unity of command ("one man,one boss") as xompared to functional supervision; whether any independent authority should be excercised by staff personnel; the relative advantages of directive and participative decision-makeng. Some of these issues are more apparent than real. Nearly all serious students in this field now agree that there is no single form of pyramid or style of leadership that fits all organizations but that, on the contrary, the functions performed ty a given organization must by taken into account to determine whether it will run organizations need more centralization and more decentralization. More direction and more participation, all at the same time. In the discussion that follows, we will consider the table of organization from the special standpoint of the new manager engaged in establishing authority. The first necessity is access to all parts of the organization. The worst possible arrangement is that in which all contact between manager and organization is monitored by a powerful gatekeeper who can manipulate the flow of information upward and downward. Some marvelously inept managers, like Richard Nixon and Ferdinand V11 of Spain, have installed such arrangements on their own initiative. More commonly, a new manager inherits such an arrangement after it has grown up under a weak or careless predecessor. When the outsider appointed to the presidency of the company described in Figure 1 discovers that the comptroller, the general counsel, the research director, and the heads of major operating departments all report to the executive vice-president, he knows that he has only a fighting chance of establishing his authority. In a small organization like a retail store, an elementary school, or a social agency, the manager needs direct contact with and some control over, every member of the organization. In a large organization, direct contact is not feasible, but it should still be possible for the manager to initiate direct communication anywhere in the organization and to punish or reward any individual in it. If these requirements are not met, the organization is partly out of control, but a degree of manageability can be salvaged, it the manager must approve all appointments, promotions, and transfers. When even this limited prerogative is lacking, as in the factories of the French tobacco monopoly. The manager becomes a figurehead with hardly and influence on the enterprise over which he presides The director's role in the plant is small. Production goals are narrowly fixed by the central office. Processes are stable and change is extremely difficult. The director does not have the right either to hire or to fire; he does not even have the right passion workers to various jobs. The only people who are really dependent on him are those in the extremely weak s supervisors' group. His only chance of making his influence felt is to administer the rules in such a way as to diminish the constant squabbling their application brings, and, in that way, to inspire people with more positive attitudes toward production. The organization must be assumed by strong leaders. Managers as well as worker, the fact that their job are so secure as to be scarcely affected by his own performance makes it possible for the director of such an establishment to continue in office with some equanimity. From the manager's standpoint, the people below him in the table or organization can be divided into four groups; personal assistants, headquarters staff, subordinate managers. And the rank-and file. It may help in visualizing the relationship of these four categories if we point out who they are in organizations of different types. Consider the company president shown in Figure 2. His personal assistants include an office manager, three secretaries, two assistants to the president, a receptionist, and a chauffiur; his headquarters staff are the company comptroller, the heads of the legal, personnel, and public relations departments, and the vice-presidents in charge of research and development, marketing and production. The subordinate managers shown in the table are group vice-presidents and presidents of subsidiaries. Lower managers and the rank-and-file are omitted from the table. Now consider a neighborhood church. The minister's personal assistants are his part-time secretary sand his wife; the sexton and the organist are his headquarters staff; the choirmaster and the Sunday school superintendent are subordinate managers. The congregation makes up the rank-and-file. In tiny organizations, two of these roles may be combined in the same person. In a road-mending crew, for example, the timekeeper may be both the foreman's personal assistant and the sole member of his staff, but he will be treated a little differently in each role. The larger the organization, the greater the member of successive layers of management are likely to develop until, in a very large organization like the United States government, most of the people with whom the chief executive deals, even among his personal assistants, have management structures of their own, including personal assistants, a staff, subordinate managers, and a rank-and-file. But this complexity is more apparent than real since, from the standpoint of any manager confronting the table of organization for which he or she is responsible, the same four groups of subordinates appear and present the same kinds of problems. Personal Assistant As you, the new manager, review the table of organization, you must make sure that all your personal assistants are under your direct and exclusive control. They should not be required to report to anyone exclusive control. They should not be required to report to anyone else or even to consult with anyone else except at your direction. Each of them ought to be beholden to you alone for pay and promotion, and subject to dismissal at your discretion. A personal assistance who is too responsive to someone else in the organization poses a threat to even the strongest manager and should not be tolerated for longer than it takes to arrange a replacement. In the medieval French monarchy, the first thing that happened at the accession of a new king was that the former king's chamberlain came before the throne and broke his staff of office. By a sensible custom, he was never reappointed. If it is important that personal assistants be under no obligation to other persons, it is equally important that they not acquire authority over staff officials and subordinate managers. Because they enjoy daily access to you, the manager. Know your secrets, and control our flow of information, personal assistants who are faithful and competent inevitably acquire more power than the table of organization assigns to them. It is one of our principal responsibilities to keep this power in constant check. This can be accomplished by keeping the rank, pay, and perquisites of your personal assistants well below those of other people in the managerial circle and by constant surveillance to make sure they are not abusing their informal authority In absolute monarchies and family-owned businesses, if the man or woman responsible for management lacks talent or inclination for the job, they may delegate their power to a personal assistant a mistress or favorite like Pompadour or Buckingham; a private secretary. The theory behind the rule of personal assistants is that since the power they exercise is illegitimate and universally resented, they remain totally dependent on their patrons and can be dismissed without any trouble whenever the patron's and can be dismissed without any trouble whenever the patron's Enthusiasm cools. The experiment has been tried innumerable times with varied outcomes, but that story would take us too far afield. In the ling run, the practice of ruling through a personal assistant seems to lead either to a revolution that overthrows the regime or to a new xonstitution in which the head of the organization becomes a ceremonial figure and the assistant, as shogun or grand vizier, becomes the legitimate manager. Headquarter Staff The most interesting part of a table of organization from the maner's standpoint, is the section of it close to the top where the responsibilities of the headquarter staff are shown. Your relationships with these key people are usually troublesome, since you are naturally dependent on them for information and advice but their individual interests differ from your own. Each of the dey staff people is the advocate of a specialized approach to the organization's problems, for which they wantmore scope than their colleagues are willing to concede. Each of them is additionally responsible for giving information and advice to subordinate managers, which involves them in permanent conflicts with other staff officials and a potential conflict with you. At this level of the organization, more than at any other, the conflicting principles that enter into organizational decisions seem to be embodied in live protagonists: Mrs Hillary the controller, Mr. Shakeford the lawyer, Mr. Spillared the marketing executive, Dr. Tolls the research director, all with axes to grind. Agood table of organization includes certain specific provision about the staff: First, the major staff officials ought to be clearly unequal in rank, pay, influence, and other status attributes, since if two or more of them are nearly equal, their struggles for predominance will keep the organization in a constant state of turmoil. Second, they ought to meet frequently with the manager as a council or cabinet so that most of their disputes can be resolved by direct interaction or by the persuasion of a majority opinion, If they meet frequently without the manager, they will probably come to perceive him or her as their common enemy. If they do not meet at all, they will use the manager as the rope in their tugs-of-war. In council, the manager's role as chairman makes it possible to encourage a coalition against any malcontent without losing the benefit of the man content's advice, as in the famous case of President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton. Third, the relationships between requires its departments to conform to certain staff officials and thd subordinate managers should be somewhat ambiguous. On the one hand, the organization cannot control subordinate managers if they are not fully responsive to line authority. On the other hand, even the most decentralized organization fixed procedures, and these generally fall within the jurisdiction of the staff. The desirable ambiguity in the staff-ling relationship whereby each party considers itself superior but fears to push the claim too far is secured by a number of conventional devices, Staff officials should be approximately equal in rank and perquiste to the subordinate managers with whom they deal; or perhaps a little lower To make up for the informal perquisites they acquire by proximity to the central authority people who carry out staff functions for a subordinate manager should report information to, and receive directives from, the headquarters staff but remain dependent on the subordinate manager for pay and promotion. A subordinate manager should never be required to go through the staff to obtain access to the manager, nor should the manger allow the direct channels of communication to the line to be blocked by staff officials.. Provisions for ambiguity invariably generate some friction between staff and line, but the definite predominance of one party or the other has graver consequences, When the staff is clearly on top, as in many social agencies, managers become grossly inefficient in their efforts to satisfy incompatible demands. When the line clearly dominates the staff, as in some research institues, the organization develops a remarkable capacity to nullify managerial decisions.. The Subordinate Managers Subordinate managers need to be treated differently from staff officials, so differently that the rules a manager ought to follow are almost but not quite reversed when turning from one group to the other. The constant objective in dealing with staff officials is to keep them from assuming too much responsibility. The constant objective in dealing with subordinate managers is to encourage then to assume as much responsibility as possible. The empirical evidence for this prescription is set fort at length in such books as Rensis Likert's New Patterns of Management The theme in is that the morale and productivity of an operating department can often be improved by giving it more independent responsibility for its part of the organization program. When subordinates are given more autonomy, their emotional commitment to the organizational program often increases in a dramatic way. On the technical sede, their familiarity with operational details often enables then to run a given operation more effectively within broad guidelines than under tight instructions. One paracoxical result is that the manager who gives the fullest possible autonomy to subordinates may find his power over then enhanced rather than diminished, because evaluation of their performance becomes vastly more important to them as their responsibility for that performance increases. This procedure can be carried down through successive levels of the hirerachy to the individual worker, considered as the smallest possible "operational department." On each level, the transfer of decision-making power from the superior to the subordinate increases the subordinate's commitment to his tasks and reinforces, rather than diminishes, the authority of the superior. The secret that under certain conditions the more authority a manager geive asay, the more is left, was discovered by Elton Mayo and his associates a half a century ago. It was the second critical event in the history of scientific management the first was the invention of time-and-motion analysis by Frederick Taylor a generation earlier. The Mayo discovery has given rise to innumerable innovations in the management of large-scale organizations under such labels as group dynamics, federal decentralization, conferences and committees replaces the ususl chain of command. In others, impersonal measures of productivity are substituted for direct supervision. Several influential movements like group dynamics and sensitivity training have a psychoanalytic flavor; they identify the desire to exercise direct authority as a neurosis and undertake to cure it by group therapy. "Having a position of dominance," is to dominate for the sake of power as well as for the requirements of the job. But, to the extent that dominance is used for personal gratification, a profound sense of guilt ensues, also. The principle that authority can be enhance\by giving it away is central to modern management, but it does have certain limitations that prevent it from being universally applied. In many operation, the need for precise coordination among the parts of an organization is so compelling that it takes precedence over the improvement of morale or productivity. Most large organizations include some operating units that are not fully committed to the organizational program and that are more likely to use an increase of autonomy to sabotage their tasks than to perform them with heightened zeal. Another limitation of the human relations approach is that subordinates as well as managers are capable of learning that the delegation of authority may be used to enhance a manager's power. This is what Peter Drucker calls "psychological despotism." The manipulations of a manager oriented to huma relations may be resisted as stubbornly as the arm-twisting of an old-fashioned authoritarian. Some workers would rather be ruled by a drillmaster than by a psychiatric social worker. What the captain wants from the patrol commanders is not the simple and uncomplicated obedience which we find on the drill ground, but something much more difficult to obtain. The captain wants the leaders of his patrols to reach decisions on the host of problems with which they will be confronted which will conform to his general strategy; but he cannot tell in advance what their decisions will be like. In this situation the company commander is making an attempt to multiply his mental powers by giving a task to subordinates which requires that they think and act on their own… The patrol situation has the advantage over the parade ground situation in that far more decisions can be made by the whole organization because each of the subordinates must reach decisions in addition to the single superior. The disadvantage is that some of the decisions made by the subordinates will inevitably be contrary to the desires of the commander. There may be other disadvantages to the delegation of authority, as when subordinate managers acquire so much autonomous authority that the control organization is unable to suppress conflicts between them. When subordinate managers are weak, they will not work effectively for the organization, but when they are to strong, they cannot easily be restrained from fighting each other. A state of baronial warfare does not prevent mutinous coalitions against the ruler. Indeed, it makes such coalitions more likely. The principle that a manager should delegate as much authority as possible to subordinate managers obviously needs to be hedge with reservations. The manager should do so only if his or her control of the organization's finances is secure; the performance of operating departments can be objectively measured, ther are no obvious conflicts of interest between operation departments and the central organization, the subordinate manager is not now and has never been an active candidate for the top position, and the subordinate manager is not irremovable because of formal tenure or informal influence. A headquarters staff, as we noted before, cannot function well except as a council, and it is a constant concern of the manager to encourage informal communication among the staff advisers. Nearly the opposite rule applies to subordinate managers, who are asked to be competitive without flying at each other's throats. Excessive communication among them multiplies the opportunities for destructive conflict and the parallel opportunities for improper coalitions. Most exceptions are only apparent. In the United States government, for example, The President's cabinet, composed of the head of major departments, is an advisory concil in theory, but every effective President has turned elsewhere for assistance in decision-making. Rank-and-File In most instances, this level of the organization is much more heavily populated than the others the workers of a factory, the soldiers of an army, the clerks of a bureaucracy. In many organizations there are two distinct levels of the rank-and-file; the lowest category of organizational functionaries and, below them, a category of clients for example, welfare recipients who must be considered because, unlike the guests of a hotel or the patrons of a theater, they are locked into the organization and subject to its authority. Tables of organization often omit clients altogether because they are not paid, but provided that the clients are routinely dependent on the organization and subject to managerial autority, they ought to be included, Thus, a school has a rank-and-file of classroom teachers and another rank-and-file of pupils; a welfare agency has a rank-and-file of social workers and another of beneficiaries; a hospital has its rank-and-file of aides and attendants and another rank-and-file of patients. Many rank-and-riles have spokesmen who represent their interests vis-à-vis management shop stewards, walking delegates, prefects, trubunes of the people, and outside representatives of various kinds. Rank-and-file spokesmen are nearly always omitted from the table of organization, but this does not in any way diminish their importance in real life, and the manager who does not find them on the chart must still find out who they are, what they do, what occasions bring them out, and what they expect from him or her. In a small organization, such as a symphony orchestra or an elementary school, the manager may spend a large part of the working day in direct contact with the rank-and-file. In a large organization. Such as a factory or a military base, the manager's contact with the rank-and-file is likely to be very limited, and he is likely to have a sense of isolation from them and to rely excessively on his few contracts with low-ranking members of the organization, like chauffeurs and elevator operators, or with other rank-and-file people he knows personally. The reason there is so little contact between the manager and the rank-and-file in some organizations is that such contact is not required by the organizational program. As manager, you are supposed to communicate with staff officials and subordinate managers who, in turn, communicate with the rank-and-file. William Whyte's classic study of a street-corner gang in an Italian slum in Boston (described in his Street Corner Society) showed that although the gang had only about a dozen members, the leader's relation with the rank-and-file was conducted almost exclusively through intermediaries. Even in an organization of this miniature scale, it was possible to identify the staff officials and subordinate managers through whom the leader's communications with the seven or eight young men who composed the rank-and-file were transmitted. Although the manager and the rank-and-file may see very little of each other, the relationship is important to both parties. In a crisis, the manager's ability to understand and to be understood by the rank-and-file often makes the difference between success and failure. For the rank-and-file, the responsible manager is a living symbol of the organization's collective identity. Any honor or disgrace he incurs affects them all. Even the manager of a supermarket has some dim trace of the aura that surrounds monarchs, ship captains, senior partners of law firms, and museum curators. You may continue to enjoy the loyalty of the rank-and-file if you are corrupt or cruel or technically incompetent, but you will lose them at once if you show any sign of not taking the organization seriously, not caring about its reputation or not attaching any importance to your own prerogatives. Besides this symbolic function as King of the Lions, the manager of an organization has practical duties in relation to the rank-and-file. You are, or should be, their principle source of information about the organization's purposes and policies and whatever changes occur in them. You are, or should be, their ultimate guarantor of justice; that is, of the equitable application of rules to individuals. In most well run organizations, this means that some procedure is provided whereby an action that adversely affects any member of the organization can be appealed directly or indirectly to the top and can be nullified either for good cause, which is one sort of justice, or out of compassion, which is another sort of justice. Even if these managerial prerogatives are seldom exercised, it is essential that they exist lest the organization appear as a heartless monster, incapable of remorse or sympathy. In nearly all organizations the manager distributes promotions and rewards in his own name, if not on his own initiative. The ritualistic nature of the relationship between the manager and the rank-and-file impedes the flow of information upward. Every manager needs to know about some events at the rank-and-file level; for example, you would like to learn about any dramatic change in your own popularity, or the popularity of a subordinate manager, before rebellion erupts. This information will not come to you spontaneously in even the smallest organization. Active steps must be taken to obtain it. The method whereby the ruler disguises himself and wanders among his subjects, is one of the best, but it can only be practiced by very self-confident rulers in very large organizations. The difficulty experienced by many managers in obtaining a steady flow of information from the rank-and-file is related to one of the most fundamental problems of management; the tension inherent in the relationship between superiors and subordinates. To this irremovable problem and some of its partial solutions we now turn. Superiors interacting Comfortably with Subordinates As a manager, all of your human contacts inside the organization are with subordinates, since you have no peers and no superiors there. Unless you can get along comfortable with subordinates you will never be able to do your job well or enjoy it. Otherwise, like Julius Caesar and the last sha or Iran, your situation may be hopeless by the time you find out that you are in trouble. Some people take to this situation more readily than others, but even very timid and self-conscious people can do very well in unequal relationships if they understand how the interaction between a subordinate Seldom evokes the same sentiments from both. If we go into any organization and quietly observe the relationship between a superior and a subordinate for several weeks or months, we discover that most of their conversations are initiated by the subordinate, while most of the activity resulting from those conversations is initiated by the superior. Typically, the subordinate, having finished an assignment or run into a problem, goes to the superior and says, "This is the position., What shall I do Now?" thus initiating a conversation. At the end of the conversation the superior says something like, "Why don't you try using the thingamabod?" thus initiating an activity. The frequency and the content of these conversations are usually set by the subordinate, who makes a complicated calculation in doing so. The fewer of these conversations he has, the more autonomous he will be in carrying out his organizational tasks but the less help he will receive with them. Faced with this choice, most subordinates in most organizations choose autonomy and minimize contact with their superiors. An important minority of subordindates choose to maximize their contacts with their superiors either because they think themselves too weak to function autonomously or strong enough to gain more than they lose by putting themselves too weak to function autonomy and minimze contact with their superiors. An important minority of subordinates choose to maximize their contacts with their superiors either because they think themselves too weak to function autonomously or strong enough to gain more than they lose by putting themselves under close supervision. This choice can be observed in a very wide range of situations, from the grade school class in which a majority of pupils avoid close contact with the teacher while a minority of teacher's pets seek her out, to the multinational corporation in which most managers try to keep as much social and geographical distance as possible between themselves and the home office while a few appear there at every opportunity. A competent teacher will try hard to draw the isolated pupil closer and even harder to discourage the excessive dependence of the teacher's pet. A competent corporate manager will act similarly. This is often more easily said than done, if only because of the sociopsyschologial illusion whereby we perceive extraneous conversation in w working relationship as a sign of friendliness. This perception is roughly accurate in relationship among peers or in casual relationships where there is nothing to be gained from extraneous conversation besides the pleasure of sociability. In conversations between superiors and subordinates, although sociability plays a part, the participants always have ulterior motives, which makes it impossible for either party to interpret the sentiments of the other by so easy an index. It is much better practice for you to measure the affection of your subordinates by their zeal to comply with your orders than by their eagerness to fraternize with you. Even with this austere criterior, a new manager is likely to misidentify friends and enemies among his subordinates until he has had a long and varied experience with them. The superior and subordinate who interact frequently learn a great deal about each other, but each of them ges a different type of information. The superior gets a comprehensive view of the subordinate's performance because he sees it from above, can compare it with the performance of the subordinates's peers, and has a license to examine any aspect of the performance on behalf of the organization.. The subordinate has a much hazier view of the superior's performance, much of which does not concern him or her at all, or is responsive to demands that he or she knows nothing about, or is judged by standards with which he or she has no reason to be familiar. The kindergarten teacher can evaluate the pupils' performance quite easily, while the pupils have no way of judging the effectiveness of the teacher aside from whether they like or dislike him or her. To compensate for the subordinate's tunnel vision with respect to the competence of the superior, he or she gets to know a great deal about the superior as a person without being required to reveal very much in return. The superior ordinarily has no means of obtaining information about the habits or attitudes of a subordinate except by unaided observation, and what that observation can yield is severely limited by the subordinate's inclination to dissemble emotions and conceal events to which the superior might react unfavorably. The superior has less motive for personal concealment, since the subordinate's judgments are less threatening to him than his own, judgments to the subordinate; but even if he wanted to conceal himself, he has no way of shutting off the subordinate's exchange of information with other people in the organization to whom the superior is an object of constant interest and observation. All that you as a manager can do about this is to follow certain prudent rules that take into account this disparity of perspective between you and your subordinates. One such rule is to mistrust your own opinions and judgments about subordinates in matters that are unrelated to their work or go beyond it. As manager, you cannot ever tell with certainty, for example, whether your assistants are happy to see you or not. Nor can you ever hope to understand the office love affairs that are crystal clear to everyone else, Don't try very hard to share in the network of gossip and news; at best you will remain ignorant of matters that everyone else knows about, and a worst you participation in the grapevine may be used to manipulate your judgment of people and events. You also need to remember that, while you cannot see through the veils worn by your subordinates, your own face is always under scrutiny from multiple points of observation, so that any attempt to present different faces to different people may expose you to ridicule. There is another imbalance built into the emotional exchange between a superior and a subordinate. Under most circumstances their interaction makes much more difference for the subordinate than for the superior, if only because the subordinate has more to hope for by way of reward and more to fear by way of punishment. The sentiments of superiors to subordinates normally vary from friendly to hostile, while the sentiments of subordinates to superiors are often ambivalent, including both friendly and unfriendly feelings at the same time. Of course, this pattern my be reversed or modified in particular cases. There are traces of ambivalence in every cooperative relationship, and acute ambivalence may be felt on either side of a relationship. But the susceptibility of subordinates to ambivalent feelings about superiors needs to be reckoned with in every organization. The reasons are self-evident. The subordinate is, among other things, an instrument for the achievement of the superior's purposes and is liked or loved if he fulfills that function and dislike or hated if he fails to do so, The superior, by contrast, is source of both rewards and frustrations for th subordinate, and he influences the subordinate's happiness more than his own is affected in return. The usual reaction of an ambivalent subordinate is to display affection an conceal resentment in the presence of the superior. When you must work with a number of subordinates in the same situation, they will probably compete in expressing loyalty to your face, and exchange grievances behind your back. There is no need for you to be alarmed by this prospect. It is a wholesome condition and will do you no harm provided you do not allow yourself to b lulled in the illusion that you are universally loved. That illusion the occupational disease of tyrants is certain to get you into trouble sooner or later when you discover perfidious sentiments among your followers or count too heavily upon their loyalty in a crises. This will be a forever complaining of managers who do not take the ambivalence of their subordinates into account. The wiser ruler enjoys and reciprocates the expressions of devotion he receives, but omits them from his tactical calculations. The relationship between a superior and a subordinate is further complicated by the curious catalytic effects that occur in such relationships in the presence of third parties, especially when the third parties belong to the same hierarchy. The general pattern of these effects is summed up in the table below, although there are innumerable variations and nuances. The first column of the table shows what happens to the interaction between a superior and a subordinate in the presence of a third party. (The table refers in each case to a single third party; multiple third parties usually influence the relationship in the same direction but more forcefully.) As communication decreases, interaction becomes more formal and less spontaneous, tongues are guarded, emotions are censored, and interaction approaches the minimun required by the organization program. The influence of third parties on communication between superior and subordinate is dismayingly simple the presence of any third party decreases it, although the intensity of the effect varies according to the identity of the third party, The effect has all sorts of practical implications for any manager. Whenever you want to hold a candid conversation with a subordinate, you had better arrange to hold it privately. When you need to have such conversation with a nu mber of subordinates, you had better see then one by one, even if it takes more time and trouble than you like. The inhibiting effect of a third party is an automatic feature of the situation; it is not under the control of the people involved, and it cannot be suppressed by an effort of will. Busy managers often try to override the mechanism by ignoring the presence of a third party who is unavoidably present at a discussion but has no special interest in the matter discussed. It cannot be done. A conversation that pretends to be private is always less informative than one that is private. The second column of the table shows a somewhat more intricate set of effects. The pressure on a subordinate to conform to the authority of a superior is usually enhanced by the presence of another superior, even of a person to whom the subordinate never reports. The bosses, the subordinate might say, gang up on him. This, too, is an automatic mechanism. When, as sometimes happens, it fails to work, the failure signals a breakdown in the hierarchical structure, The presence of outsiders those not in the hierarchy has a similar effect. The superior's authority is usually reinforced, either because the outsider represents a larger social system to which the whole organization belongs, or in order to maintain normal appearances, as Erving Goffman shows in hi Relation in Public. The presence of the subordinate's peers or subordinates has an opposite effect on the superior's authority, strengthening the subordinate's ability to resist, and restricting the scope of obedience the superior can demand. Although this model is almost excessively simple, it seems to work most of the time. An interesting study of a military unit by Reece McGee found that the mere number of superiors, peers, ans subordinates with whom an officer routinely interacted went a long way toward explaining how the officer was rated on efficiency and leadership. In general, the more superiors an officer had to deal with, the harder he found it to appear efficient; the more peers he had to back him up, and the more subordinates he had to help him with his assignments, the easier it was to make a good showing. Most managers apply the principles stated above by intuition, individualizing their interaction with subordinates when they anticipate resistance and associating themselves with superiors and outsiders when they are not sure of obtaining compliance otherwise. But, if the purpose of such a maneuver becomes apparent, it is likely to fail. Juggling the audience to minimize the possibility that subordinates will defy his authority is something every manager has to do from time to time; the skill consists in doing it unobtrusively, so that the appearance or disappearance of third parties around the scene of action is attributable to other causes. The last column of the table shows the normal effect of the presence of third parties on the emotional solidarity of a superior and a subordinate. This follows a different pattern. The parties to an unequal relationship, like human actors everywhere, are drawn closer together by the presence of people who are different from themselves and potentially unfriendly, and are pulled apart by the appearance of revals for each other's affections. In an organizational setting, the sense of solidayity between a superior and a subordinate is strengthened by the presence of persons who are superior to both of them. Subordinate to both of them, or altogether outside of their hierarchy. In the presence of a general and the enlisted men may feel a surprising warmth toward each other as fellow soldiers. Modern managers share the same perception, an it is rather unusual for two strong subordinates to remain substantially equal for any length of time. Even a weak, ineffectual manager can usually arrange to tip the balance of authority toward one subordinate or the other. On the other hand, rebellious coalitions may also form in a triad with three unequal members, but a B and C subordinate is not as advantageous for C when C is weaker than B. C gains ascendancy over A by joining a B and C coalition but remains subordinate to B within the coalition, sometimes trading one master for another. This may not be desirable from his standpoint. C shares the unavoidable risks of rebellion equally with B bu does not profit equally. One alternative for C when offered a B and C coalition is to form an A and C coalition instead, for while subordinate to his partner in that coalition also, C will gain an ascendancy over B that he did not have before, without running an of the risks attached to rebellion against A. The process whereby traids split into a division of two-against-one has been extensively studied inlaboratory experiments. In the typical experiment, three subjects are asked to play a game or solve a problem that has been carefully arrange to make them unequal in power, and their behavior is observed through a one-way mirror and recorded by various instruments. A series of such experiments by many investigators has confirmed the existence of a tendency for the two weaker members of a hierarchical triad to combine against the stronger member by forming a B and C coalition. The probability of a B and C coalition is not constant, however. It varies from one experimental game to another, and it can be manipulated by modifying the rules and conditions. The reliable expectation in a hierarchical triad is that some coalition will be formed. The threat of a BC coalition is too much for a to live with indefinitely particularly when considering that B stands to gain so much from a rebellious coalition that B may be willing to offer equality to C in order to Gain C's adherence. At the same time, B is acutely aware that an AC coalition will make him low man in the triad without much cost to either A or C, and if he cannot have a B and C coalition, B probably prefers an a and B coalition to none at all. What should A do in this situation, assuming that he cannot reduce the strength of B or C enough to make a B and C coalition ineffectual: If he can do that, he may want to. But if he cannot, he is well advised to form a coalition with either B or C before they sign up with each other. Which one does A choose? The A and C coalition is tempting. C is more eager to join A than is B, will probably be a more tractable partner. Since B poses more of a threat to A's authority, it may seem imprudent to strengthen him further by an A and B coalition, Nevertheless, in nine cases out or ten, the right choice for the manager in a hierarchical triad is to form the A and B coalition if possible. It is the only coalition that does not undermine the table of organization or interfere with the organization's program, and the manager ought to prefer it as a matter of principle. The manager is more likely to gain than to lose by upholding the authority of his principal subordinate. The A and C coalition, sometimes called an improper coalition, preserves A's authority at the cost of creating an ambiguous relationship between B and C. B continues to claim authority over C as an individual but is dominated by the A and C coalition, in which C is a Partner. Under this arrangement, neither B Nor C Can exercise authority with any confidence, and the organizational program for which the triad is responsible is sure to suffer. Management Authority If you, the new manager, do not establish your authority early, the chance of your doing it later is exceedingly thin. Conversely, once your authority is established, it probably tends to persist as long as you continue in good health and take you work seriously if you are able to cope with crises as they arise. Regardless of how ling and well they have handled their routine responsibilities, nearly all managers must sometimes confront a major crisis that puts their authority in question. An Organization that handles emergencies routinely does not define them as crises. A fire is not ordinarily a crisis for a fire department but any fire is a crisis for a school, and if an alarm is sent out for a school fire and the firemen cannot respond because of an equipment breakdown, that is a crisis for the fire department. An organization crisis is problem that calls for maximum effort. The manager's role in eliciting this maximum effort is both e symbolic and practical. Symbolically, he personifies the organization's determination to solve the problem and provides a model of energy and devotion for other members to imitate. Practically, he is responsible for the temporary social structure that every real crisis requires and for overseeing it until the crisis has passed. Time being always of the essence in crisis, it is convenient to describe the manager's response as a sequence of stages. Your recognition of a crisis in the organization should be dramatic, instantaneous, and unmistakable. When the news arrives in the middle of the night, it is seldom advisable to wait until morning to react. There is very little danger in wrongly identifying a non crisis as a crisis; it will give everyone concerned an interlude of pleasurable excitement and probably be remembered as a crisis surmounted. There is always grave danger in responding too slowly or too feebly to a crisis announcement. By morning the situation may be irretrievable. As soon as a crisis has been recognized, you must get to its scene, even if the crisis is inconveniently located or you have better facilities for working on it somewhere else. Any long delay in appearing on the scene is likely to destroy your authority, regardless of the eventual outcome of the crisis. I have known the manager of an international enterprise to lose control of it because when one of his subordinates was missing at sea in disable company boat, he directed rescue operations from the home office instead of going to the port form which the search was being conducted. The search was successful, but the stay at home manager never recovered his authority in that part of the world. The local impression was that he had been neglectful. In other instances, the manager's absence from the scene convicts him of timidity or cowardice. The college president who will not come out of his office to face a student riot but sends a dean in his place might as well resign then and there instead of waiting to discover that his usefulness is ended. Once on the scene, you may find yourself in the peculiar position of having to sustain a mood of urgency without doing very much. The obvious steps putting in the fire alarm, closing the driveway to traffic, getting the cash out of the safe, finding the night watchman are likely to have been taken already. The less obvious steps that will need to be taken require more information and advice than are yet available. It is at this point that you should recruit a crisis council to stay in session until the crisis is over. You are free to name anyone in the organization to that council, but in most instances there are certain people who must be included if the council is to have quick and frictionless access to the needed facilities. In a small organization, the crisis unit may have only two or three members. A crisis unit is almost always more democratic than the table of organization from which its members are drawn. In the ideal case, the members treat each other as equals in the development of information, advice, and alternative contingency plans for the manager's consideration. When the opinion of the unit on any point is unanimous, it prevails; when there is a division of opinion in the unit, the manager can follow the advice of either the majority or the minority without expecting resistance. One of the first recommendations of a crisis council is likely to be a mobilization. All sorts of people and facilities are made ready to be used in contingencies that will probably not occur. This move, too, has both symbolic and practical purposes. Symbolically, it announces the fateful character of the organization's struggle for survival and the temporary suspension of other organizational goals. Practically, it enlarges the manager's ability to respond to unforeseen events and to deploy resources in new combinations. The next stage in the management of the crisis is the enactment of a plan. What that plan will be about depends, of course , on the nature of the crisis; it may be a battle or an election, a championship game or a corporate takeover, a budget hearing or a hurricane, a strike or a schism. The common principles that apply to these diverse events are few but important. First, any plan is better than moment to -moment improvisation. Second, once a plan has been adopted, all the weight of the organization should be thrown behind it. Third, every crisis plan should include provision for the worst possible outcome, starting from Murphy's law ('Whatever can go wrong , will" ) and including some provisions for each of murphy's contingencies. Terminating a crisis promptly, once the danger has passed, is nearly as important as recognizing it promptly. This is the step mos often scanted. Flushed by success and exhausted by their efforts. The members of the crisis unit return to their normal duties, leaving their organizational audience in confusion. (The reserve units called months later.) The right procedure is to wind the crisis up, dissolving the crisis council, demobilizing the reserves, evaluating the outcome, and distributing rewards or thanks to those who served and those who only stood and waited. None of the fore going advice is meant to contradict the suggestion made in the Introduction that a good manager ought to have few organizational crises and ought to prepare for them long in advance. Nevertheless, in most organizations it is nearly impossible for a manager to make his authority secure until he has surmounted at least one major crisis. Recognizing Secure Authority The marks of secure authority fifer somewhat from one type of organization to another and according to managerial styles, but there are certain neat little clues which always identify the manager whose authority is secure. You must be able to say yes to more of the following questions: 1. Do your subordinates come to you for advice and instruction on routine matters without being sent for? 2. Can you make suggestions to subordinates that are not misconstrued as orders? 3. Can you go anywhere in the organization without fear or embarrassment? 4. Do you get along well with the people who are just below you in the table of organization? 5. Do you miss most of the gossip about the private lives of people in the organization? 6. Are the matters referred to you for decision those you want referred while subordinates make other decisions on their own? 7. When you return to the organization after an absence, do you expect to find things quiet and peaceful? 8. Do rank-and -file members of the organization seem genuinely pleased when they run into you unexpectedly? 9. When you preside at a meeting of subordinates, can you get them to talk freely? 10. Are you able, at such a meeting, to suspend the discussion of a controversial topic and go on to something else? 11. When you attend a meeting presided over by one of your subordinates, does it run quite normally? 12. Can you make promotions, appointments, or expenditures without consulting anybody except those people with whom the table of organization requires you to consult? 13. Can you adjust you personal workload upward or downward without adversely affecting the organization? 14. Is there less turnover and absenteeism among your close associates than elsewhere in the organization? 15. Are you able to prevent rebellious coalitions and to stay out of improper coalitions? Reports The manager's task of holding the organization together requires an adequate flow of information upward and downward, and inward and outward. The adequacy of this information flow is measured by the consensus that results from it; that is, the extent to which members of the organization come to agree about the organization's goals. With high consensus, an organization will have few quarrels; with intermediate consensus, there will be many quarrel, but most of them will be resolved or contained; with low consensus, there will be frequent and severe conflicts and any one of them may turn into a disaster. Communication and consensus are intimately related, but the relationship is too complex to be reduced to a simple formula. On the one hand, the improvement of consensus ordinarily requires increased communication. On the other hand, an increase in the flow of information between two parts of an organization can undermine an existing consensus. Every organization can be analyzed as a communication network. The easiest way to make your mark as a manager is to improve the quality of the routine reports the organization produces hourly daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually; in written, graphic, or numerical form, about its ongoing activities. This is often quite easy to do, because there are very few people who grasp the importance of routine reporting procedures. Systems of routine reporting deteriorate in use, so that even the best system needs to be reformed from time to time. The first step in setting up or reforming a system of routine reports is to determine priorities. Top-priority reports are those that claim attention as soon as they appear. Middle priority reports are needed for occasional reference. Low priority reports refer to matters that do not ordinarily require action. A good deal of care, and as much expense as necessary, ought to be lavished on the production of top priority reports. It goes without saying that reports in this category should be as prompt, accurate, and complete as is humanly possible, and that they should be in a form that permits comparison with other organization, with past performance, and with projected achievements. As usual, it may be helpful to visualize a concrete case. Let us use a public high school for this purpose and assume that your are the principal. The most important routine report that comes to your desk is the daily attendance report, which shows the number of students and teachers present and absent by class and grade, together with absentees and the number of persons who have joined or left the roster since the previous day. A well-designed reporting form (Figure 4) ought to provide a summary absenteeism rate for the entire school and the corresponding rates for yesterday, last week and a year ago. If records of lateness are kept, you might tempted to add a comparable summary absenteeism rate for the daily attendance report, but they are so closely related that only the absenteeism rate need be calculated. For both the producers and the users of a routine report, it is nearly as important to keep superfluous information out as to get essential information in. By the way, when computers are used, this is much harder to do. Let us assume that school begins every morning at 8:30. The daily attendance report, preferably on a single sheet of paper, ought to come to you by 9:30. Like most top priority reports, it has multiple functions. If the report is usually on time and complete, you are likely to take its accuracy for granted after a while. But you ought not to do so since, in the first place, reports of human behavior are inherently fallible and, in the second place, systems of routine reporting tend to deteriorate. You must remind yourself to verify the information in the daily attendance report from time to time and to raise a terrible fuss daily attendance report form time to time and to raise a terrible fuss whenever you find an error. The enumeration of absentees can be verified by going to a classroom and comparing the number of students physically present with he number listed as present. The total number present and absent in a given category can be compared with the number of names on the official roster. The arithmetic of totals and percentages can be verified by calculation. The figures for yesterday or leas year may be checked against yesterdays or last years's reports in the files. Nit picking procedures like these will not only help to keep the report trustworthy, they will also uncover anomalous and irregular situations of which you, the principal, should be aware. Weekly reporting is relatively unimportant in a school; school weeks are of uneven length because of holidays, recesses, examinations, and other special events. Months are more significant. The principal's top priority report will certainly include a monthly attendance report; a monthly financial report that tells you where you are running ahead of or behind the budget; a utilities report summarizing comparing current consumption with past and anticipated assumption; and an inventory report, showing applies on hand. Unless this last report is carefully make and the movement of supplies in and out is jus as carefully verified, pilferage is certain to flourish. You may well fell that you attention should be given to profound education issues, but unless you are willing to endure the demoralization that accompanies waste and stealing, you had better give the utilities and inventory reports your full attention when they come to you. The other significant reporting periods for a high school are the school term and the school year. Some reports are prepared both for the term and an annual report. Some important reports are solely annual; for example an academic achievement report, which shows the average grades assigned to students by level and subject, the average scores obtained by the students on standards achievement tests, the ratio of successful grade completions to the entering population of each grade, and the number of college applications and acceptances for the graduating class. This report, although complicated in appearance, is essential; without it, the school would fly blind. We have lingered some time in the high school principal's office in order to show you how numerous and diverse are the minumum elements of information you need to do this job in a rational way. Most high schools do not have as good system of routine reporting. Instead, the principal receives a great volume of middle and low priority information that ought to stop lower down in the organization or not be gathered at all. Even a superficial analysis of the flow of paper in most high schools and other organizations will show people filling out forms in quintuplicate when one copy would be amply sufficient, keeping elaborate records for no purposes, obtaining redundant approval for routine actions, or preparing periodic reports that no one ever sees. It is only by prujing the ovegrowth of red tape that the flowers of useful information can be made to grow. In another type of organization, the routine reports that come to a manager might be more analytical and less descriptive. For example, and old study of the organizational performance of insurance agencies. by Seashore and Yuchtman at the University of Michigan refers to such variables reported to agency managers as production costs per thousand dollars of insurance carried, maintenance costs per hundred dollars of premium collected, numbers of lives covered per one thousand dollars of insurance carried, maintenance costs per hundred dollars of premium collected, number of lives covered per one thousand insurable in the population, and so on for a total of seventy six numerical indicators. Curiously, however, the total volume of information required for effective management does not seem to vary in proportion to the size or complexity of the organization, if only because the ability of a single mind to absorb and remember information is limited. The larger the organization, the more severely must information be sifted and screened before it reaches the top. What happens then is pretty much the same in all well-run organizations; the report is scanned and its main outlines are remembered; occasionally some item stimulate further action. Every living organization has some aura of sanctity in the eyes of its members even a bridge club or a street-corner gange. Authority exercised in the name of an organization always has a moral component. Members are expected to obey organizational directives not merely because of self interest or coercion but also because of the goodness of the organization's purposes Concepts of duty, loyalty, and justice seem to arise spontaneously in all organizations, regardless of the time, place, or culture in which they are set. The responsible manager of an organization is perceived by its members as the custodian of its moral force. The manager may be corrupt, lazy, incompetent, or careless without violating this ritual role, but he or she must not appear unjust. Since subordinates lack the monarchical aura, and act of injustice by a subordinate is not likely to disturb the organization nearly as much as an unjust decision by its manager. On the other hand, the power of an organization to shape the behavior of its members is always dependent on an exchange of benefits between organizational levels. The obedience that members of organizations give to their superiors is given in direct exchange for their superiority over their own subordinates and for equality they enjoy with their peers. When one side of this exchange is reduced, the other must decline correspondingly. Thus, the manager who undermines the legitimate authority of subordinates, or fail to defend them against the encroachment of their peers, weakness his or her own hold on them at the same time. Most of the serious grievances that reach the top of an organization are serious precisely because they involve some dilemma between doing justice and maintaining authority. The janitor foreman fires a man for insubordination; the dismissed janitor admits that he often talked back, but points out that he never refused to do what he was told. The new choirmaster chooses a pretty young soprano as soloist for the Christmas program; she has a smaller vocal range than the older woman who has sung the part for the past five years. The toolcrib boss is demoted for failing to report an increase in pilferage, he claims that he made oral reports, with were disregarded, he claims that he made oral reports, which were disregarded, the superintendent; the superintendent denies it. The criv man's story is supported by one witness, a machinist who is also his next-door neighbor. Most grievances, of course, are more intricate than these examples, but almost all of them involve a managerial dilemma. I remember the case of a small consulting firm that paid high salaries and provided extensive fringe benefits to its employees. It had a low turnover rate and every sign of high morale often though the owner-manger traveled extensively in the conduct of the business and was often out the office and out of the country for long periods of time. One day he hit upon the idea of rewarding his employees with a profit sharing plan. When the plan was finally drawn up, approved by the tax authorities, and put into effect, he was startled to experience a sharp increase in performance. Traditional Communication to Contemporary communication First, there will be a center for solving problem where everyone can elect to visit at any time and call a central person for information. Management must be given the responsibility of working with employees to upgrade their abilities. Most organization previous work did not require highly educated employees. Many of the jobs were mechanical and routine, However, as companies bid on new products a much higher level of sophistication are required. Each person must be able to understand complex instructions, work as a member of quality teams, and contribute ideas and suggestions to improve the products or services. Organizations have had to overcome two major obstacles since the new era of management has come on to the scene. The management position to change employees job description takes more effort than in the past. The problems was that many employees were long-term employees who were resistant to any change. The transition has taken on new meaning, employees invite changes as a means of growth as well as increase in salary. Also, many lacked the basic skills, such as reading and speaking, that were necessary to the company's successful competition in a changing marketplace. Most organization did not require highly educated employees.. Many of the jobs were mechanical and routine. However, as the company bid on new products, a much higher level of sophistication was required. Each employee must be able to understand complex instructions, work as a team player within a quality teams, and contribute ideas and suggestions to improve the product. Promoting employees have had to overcome two major obstacles since undertaking the management of the change effort. The first problem was that many of the employees were long-term who were resistent to any change. Also, many lacked the basic skills, such as reading and speaking, that were necessary to the organization successful competition in a changing marketplace. My method is to teach employees to learn the basic skills in their own setting or providing a leaisure enviroment; casual dressing, brain storming, announcing to the group that each idea is a good idea, maybe some ideas may need sharping for printing as well as disseminating. Inddition, there will be other method of honing the skills of the employees. This will be a means of decreasing a high turnover in the process of transitioning. All companies will be advised to put similar programs in place for a continuing growth for the success of a surviving organization. Meeting with each employee at his or her convience or work station, simultaneously, organizing the employees into small groups; at each small group session, it will be stressed what each person would get out of the session. Further, there will be details of the benefits to employees who move to new fields. After each session I will be available for counseling in case an employee wanted to talk privately about the program. A series of training classes to improve the employees' abilities to write, speak, and read. Instructors with experience in basic skill education will be brought in from the community colleges. Employees will be allowed to attend the training sessions on work time. To avoid the potential stigma that might be attached to basic skill classes, the program will be schedule during the normal weekly training period during which all employees and manager or potential leaders participate in training. Developing solid group leadership within a group is most important for the working of a quality program to be successful, all employees has to participate in the small discussion groups. There will be program designed to train discussion leader in small group management. The group leaders will be expected to report to one another, remember there will be four or five position within a group each employee will be responsible for bridging gaps while implementing what they have learned though out the session. Dilemma center will be put in place, since many different parts of the change program are taking place at the sametime. The center will be inside the organization. Employees will be free to bring anything that is bothering them to the center. If they had a question, it will be answered within the hour. If one had a complaint, it will be noted and resolved. There will also be a telephone system so that employees did not have to come in person. Now the center is not bug free, however, it will provide an excellent opportunity to monitor how things are going in the organization. Not everyone Will react well to the change program. Several employees, will be targeted for the pilot program, some will be accepted and many will graduate with success. and be admitted into the management development program in their organization, with the goal of becoming managers. The future is bright for growth within the management field. First, we must establish good solid teamwork. Teamwork The need for teamwork has long been a part of American culture. We remember the great teams like the 1927 New York Yankees and the 1987-2003 Los Angeles Lakers. The Team of the Los Angeles Lakers are composed of more than one two players, and there is no way Coby or shaquill can win the game alone, it take teamwork to make it happen or for the organization to be a success. Teamwork at the workplace no matter where or what type of work is being performed, It is the concertive effort(the key) that unlocks the success. Wile considered important, team work has not been stressed in management theory. We usually regard the workplace as an environment in which individual effort produces individual rewards.. But the work of team players and coaches is changing our thinking about the important of teamwork on the job, regardless of the type of job Example, is the theory Z after a comprehensive study of the management practices being followed in Japan. While there are huge cultural differences between the United States and Japan. Americans have come to respect the accomplishments of the Japanese in the worldwide industrial arena. After being defeated in World War 11, Japan has risen to become the world's great economic leader. Japan's export-based economy dominates the world in everything from tape recorder to automobiles. The Japanese have been successful in competing in a world market even though their nation has few natural resources and must depend entirely on imported sources of energy. Fortunately, one of the reasons for the success of Japanese companies to be the presence of high levels of trust and friendship among their workers. Further, in Japanese companies, employees seemed to enjoy working together in groups. In American organizations "work" starts a 9:00 A.M. and ends at 5:00 P.M.. Most of us have one set of friends at work and another away from work. Not only do we avoid forming close relations with people at work, many organizations discourage close personal contact. For example, some organizations have policies against too much interaction at the workplace; the assumption is that if people are talking, they must not be working. For most of us, vacations mean getting away from work and from those we work with. Fun and work are two phenomena not normally grouped within the American industrial culture. While, working with Japanese and viewing the basics of Japanese business, I'm able to note significant differences between Japan and the United States in terms of these trust and friendship issues. It is not uncommon in Japan for people who work together to establish close working and professional relationships. Managers and nonmanagers elect to spend their time away from work with each other. In Japan, spouses of workers are encouraged to associate with one another. Vacations are spent with people from the company, and the Japanese Organization often assumes employee travel expenses. It is not uncommon for Japanese firms to charter airplanes for employees to travel to China, Hawaii, and Europe for holiday periods. My point is that close contact with with fellow workers, both at and away from work, creates conditions under which employees learn to trust one another. From this trust comes close working relationships which leads to comment and close committed work groups that contributes to the goals of the organization as a whole. Case No. 1 Goodyear Garage has developed a reputation as the best place in town to take your car for repair. Goodyear has designed a system whereby each mechanic shares in all of the profits from the garage. If one mechanic is not producing, another works with the low producer to see what the problem is. Workers are free to establish their own hours and elect their own lead mechanics who are responsible for assigning specific jobs. After work, most of the mechanics who get together across the street at Harry's Inn for beer and conversation. Often their wives join the group for dinner. If anything comes up and a formal meeting is called for, the whole roup meets at the local bowling alley. Decisions are made pretty easily because the guys are usually eager to bowl a few frames after the meeting. There has been absolutely no turnover at the garage for the past four years. The output has increased each year. The garage has been so successful that all of the available time slots are filled with customers bringing in cars for repairs Business is so good that the group is going to have to make a decision about taking on additional mechanics. Case No.2 Anna Viva works as a sales representative for the Sprint company, marketing computer software applications for small businesses in the Los Angeles area. Ann calls on the managers to keep them abreast of the latest developments in software. Sprint goes to extremes to keep employees of the sales force competitive. Each company product carries a point total for the sales representative. As one software package is sold it yield a specified number of points to the representatives accumulated total. Certain packages carry more points for the sales representative. As one software package is sold it yields a specified number of points to the representative accumulated total. Certain packages salary, assignment, and territory are based on the point total. Each month a summary of all the representatives points is sent to everyone in the company.. Each representative is able to compare how he or she is doing compared with all others. If a representative is on the bottom of the list for more than two months, he or she is sent a "letter of concern." After more than six months at the bottom of the list, a termination letter is automatically sent. The system seems to be working since the company has been increasing sales at an annual rate or 25 percent for the last five years. The two cases provide a basis for understanding the concept of trust and friendships. In the first case Goodyear garage has been organized along the lines of the Japanese management model detailed in Theory Z. The mechanics who work in the garage are employees of a team that takes responsibility for its own management. Neither model can be effective in all situations. Whether or not all American firms can be organized into teams is an important question., Japanese workers learn from their first day on the job to work as a team player. Americans do not. In the first concept, understanding how trust and friendships is the glue that bridge organizations together for the long hall and it overall success. Incontrast, Ann is an individual forced to survive in a competitive situation.. She has few resources for emotional support, and must determine for herself what needs to be done each day on the job. Neither model can be effective in all situations. However, fortunately, the Japanese way of successful organizational strive a number of American firms to rethink how the workplace is organized. Many firms have integrated a policy of increased teamwork into their organizational structure. When an organization implements a quality circle or a decision-making, it is to stimulate teamwork and improve the quality of the product. Cultural Differences The general manager of the San Diego division of Honda Electronics, a Janpanese firm based in Tokyo Roger, after receiving his degree in electronics from a major Japanese university, went to work for Honda several years ago as a management trainee. He worked his way up in the consumer electronics unit, managing a variety of company projects. Honda sent him back to school about three years ago to learn English in preparation for an assignment in the United States. Roger had done well in each task and he eagerly awaited the American opportunity. He came to California about 18 months ago, but the situation has not run smoothly since he arrived. The San Diego division manufactures a range of radio receives. Honda employs about 250 Americans in hourly positions but, except for eight first-ling foreman, the 26 managers are Japanese. Roger replaced another colleague who was sent home after not being able to resolve several ongoing personnel problems at the plant. Most of the Americans are electronic assemblers.. The majority of them are women with a high school education who are either heads of a single-parent homes or who earn the second family income. These women are more committed to their families than to their jobs. Most only think of Honda as a place to earn a paycheck. Since the tasks in the plant require simple manual skill in assembling components for radios, there is little incentive for the workers to develop additional abilities. Prevalent throughout the plant has bee the attitude the "if I am doing a good job, leave me alone. I will work my eight hours, earn my check, and go home to my children." The Japanese management staff at Honda has had trouble adjusting to this American Attitude. Most of the managers have been trained in a system where employment in a successful company, such as Honda, is a lifeling ambition. The managers want to do well in their San Diego assignment so that they can advance in the firm. About eight months ago, several innovations were introduced in the San Diego plant. Honda issued all workers uniforms. Later, all workers were asked to join a morning exercise program. The company began a series of small group meetings aimed at finding better ways to assemble the radio components. Several weeks ago, a new plan was initiated that encouraged workers to bring their spouses and children to a regular Saturaday morning program of entertainment and family games, Despite all these innovative programs intended to increase employee loyalty to Honda, the effort has bee unsuccessful. Most of the programs have been met with disdain by the hourly staff. Roger has overheard such comments as "Why doesn't the company just let me work in peace," " I am not going to wear one of the silly uniforms because it is really going to hinder my dating life," and "I get enough exercise running after my four-year-old at night; I don't need any at work." As noted earlier, The problem for managers have been one trying to reconcile the worldwide company directive of ordering such things as an exercise program and the wearing of uniforms with the resistance he has encountered on the job. One of the most starling contrasts i have notice is the way people behave after work. Japanese managers usually meet around 5:00 P.M. at a local restaurant to discuss the day's problems are discussed. Potential solutions are considered. These sessions often lead to the managers staying around for dinner with each other. As often as not, the managers spend Sundays together, taking in the tourist attractions of southern California. But the U.S. employees never seem to spend much time together after work. They leave as soon as the clock reaches 4:15 P.M. Efforts to encourage attendance at the Saturday morning programs have failed. Managers have attempted to persuade the workers to participate and he is usually rebuffed with comments like, "I have to spend the day shopping." Or "My husband is not interested in coming." The U. S. workers seem to take little pride in the company. For example, Honda made a wide selection of company products available to employees before Christmas at a highly reduced rate. The intention was for employees to buy the electronic equipment as presents for family and friends. The experiment failed. Several comments were overhead by managers such as, "I see enough of this stuff every day, I don't want to have it around the house" and "My kids need clothes for Christmas not electronic equipment." The biggest problem for managers have been the discussion groups that were intended to improve the quality of the product or service. Each employee was encouraged to participate in daily meetings about how the production process might be improved. Such groups have been very successful in Japan, both in cutting costs and improving the finished product or service. In San Diego, it was a complete failure. The workers would not open up. They did not offer constructive comments. Several said things like, "We are having so many meetings that I don't have any time to finish may Job" and " If I wanted to participate in meetins, I would have gone to college to become a manager; I don't want to have to worry about anything except putting in my eight hours." Failure of the group-meeting program is now being seen in the quality of the finished product. In company wide tests, the radios that had been assembled in San Diego performed much more poorly than did company radios assembled in Singapore and China. When the results were made known to managers, manager were given a direction from headquarters in Tokyo to improve the quality of the San Diego radios. Managers really wants to do a good job in his U. S. assignment. But everything he has tried has failed. He has consulted his fellow managers. He has even gone so far as to bring in a management expert from the local university. The expert suggested that the workers had to be made aware of the benefits to them of improved performance and increased identification with Honda before they would change their attitudes. While managers agrees with the expert's idea, he is unsure of how to proceed. He is convinced that everything he has learned in Japan is of no value to a manager in the United States. Listening the Key to Communication Listening is the most important of all the communication skills. As early as the 1900's it was estimated that 45 percent of our routine communication consists of listening, 30 percent of speaking, 16 percent of reading, and 9 percent of writing. In contemporary organizations, probably even more of the typical member's time is devoted to listening. Yet few of us know very much about this communication skill. Many years ago the a survey was conducted, a broad cross section of managers felt that listening skills were the most important communication skill a new employees had trouble with such tasks as following directions, paraphrasing policies, looking people directly in the eyes, and recalling specific information. There is wide agreement among experts that we spend more time in organizations practicing listening and that we do not do it particularly well. Listening is one of those neglected arts in communication, but we must keep reminding ourselves that it is one of those keys to communicative success. The ability to listen to and understand a message is crucial. Listening is basic to almost every form of effective oral interaction. Other related cognitive and interpersonal skills also depend on listening ability. For examples, you connot hope to er effective in the interview unless you listen well. Good decision making depends on the ability to listen to information. Skilled problem analysts must be able to listen if they hope to develop good solutions to potential problems. These and other skills depend on the ability to listen to and comprehend a message. Several researchers have suggested that listening really takes place at a number of cognitive and interpersonal levels. Some of these levels will be examined. The tasks that listening helps us to accomplish will be discussed next. Then we will examine some of the guidelines to effective listening that communication experts have developed over the years. Definition for Listening Think back to the discussion of the communication process in many of your subjects. The concept of listening may be thought of generally as the receiving of a communication stimulus. It is possible to define listening more scientifically. At the physiological level, listening occurs when the imput of sound waves strikes the tympanic membrane in the ear and causes vibration to occur. However, this definition ignores the fact that we receive much information without literally hearing it. Try to recall some of the conversations in which you participated this week. If you talked with your friend who seemed upset or out of sorts, you may have sensed how he was feeling from the way he looked or carried himself. If you talked with your supervisor and he seemed to be in a bad mood, you may have sensed this by comparing his interpersonal behavior today, when he was moody, to his behavior last week, when he seemed cheerful. If you went down to the grocery store to buy a box of cracker, and Mrs Bell, the owner, was feeling "up," you may have sensed this from the way she moved around the store. We receive information in social situations through many other channels besides our ears. The idea that listening as the term is in the dictionary entails more than simply hearing what someone is telling you. Listening also includes the ability to grasp fully what someone is saying in words. The total physical and psychological process of receiving informational imputs from others. But this is only the first part of the listening activity. Suppose we have received information in an exchange with someone. Now what do we do with it? This is the second part of listening. The second part consist of two basic tasks. First, we search our frame of reference for additional information that we may be able to use to assign significance to the imput we have just received.. Second, after we have assigned significance to that information, we store it. An illustration may be helpful. Suppose that you are interviewing an applicant for a position in your organization. You may ask, "Do you have any supervision experience?" The applicant may answer, "No, I don't seem to have the ability to lead." As this response is given, it enters your cognitive structure. Realizing that the position for which the applicant is interviewing requires a great deal of supervision (this is the information that you have retrieved from your memory bank), you then have two choices. You may formulate another question based on the association that you have just made. Or you may store the information for later recall. Listening, then, consists of receiving information, recalling associated information from your experience, making certain relationships, and storing the information or using it to formulate a response. The process of receiving-processing-associating-retrieving is a progress in which we focus on in our quest to communicate with accurarcy. Weaver's Model of Listening Good Listening: The key to Communication Comprehension FIGURE 4-1 ATTACH STIMULUS STIMULUS The Two-Person Model Figure 4-2 Figure 4-2 diagrams the various aspects of a communication exchange between Person A and Person B. In the model, A has been arbitrarily assigned the role of the sender, while B acts as receiver. In a real communication situation, these roles would be reversing constantly. Seven basic factors influence the receiver's ability to listen in a particular communication exchange. These are auditory and visual ability, concentration ability, situational constraints, history of the communication relationship between A and B, perceived purpose of the communication exchange, perceive degree of difficulty of the message, and perceived utility of the message. Similar, but slightly different, factors influence the sender.) Auditory and visual ability, We must be able to hear sound waves and see behavior before we can listen to and get information from a communication exchange. Some people have more auditory and visual acuity than others. Other things being equal, these people should be the best listeners. However, it is possible, with training, to improve both our hearing and seeing ability. Concentration ability, To be able to obtain all of the important data being generated in a communication exchange, the receiver must concentrate on what is being said. This means that he or she must reduce any other outside influnence that are likely to prevent full concentration. Since communication is so dynamic, it is not possible to reduce all these outside influences. Rather, the listener must limit their significance so that they do not interrupt the communication. To do this, the listener must focus on the verbal components of a message the words, and observe the physical behavior of the sender to pick up the extra verbal information being sent. Situational constraints, In almost any communication exchange what is going on "outside" will influence what is going on "Inside" These "outside" influences are called situational constraints. A social conversation can be conducted in a quiet living room with a glowing fire in the fireplace much more effectively than in a busy airport waiting lounge. When a business session that should take two hours has to be conducted in 15 minutes because the boss has to catch a plane, it probably will not produce the best kind of listening behavior, It is rarely possibly will not produce the best kind of listening behavior. It is rarely possible to do much about situational constraints.. However, the effective listener should be aware of them and attempt to reduce their impact. Histoy of relationship between sender and listener, Establishing an interpersonal relationship is a time-consuming and difficult chore. Ground breaking, finding areas of common interest, developing norms. And so forth, all take fine and effort. When all of these things are going on. It may be difficult for a receiver to be a good listener. Once a relationship has been establish, its history that is, how long it had lasted and how good it will also influence listening behavior. When we are angry with or mistrustful of someone, we will probably have trouble listening to that person. On the other hand, some people have suggested with little scientific proof that two people who have known another for a ling time, such as a husband and wife, can "hear' each other's thoughts without any words being spoken. Most relationships fall somewhere between these two extremes. The point is the history of the relationship between two people will influence their ability to listen. Because of our frame of reference, we pay more attention to some messages than others. When we have a clear perception of the purpose of the communication exchange, we can easily decide whether or not we want to listen. If the purpose of the exchange is ambiguous and we have to work hard to fill in the details, we may quickly lose interest and choose not to listen. When something is beyond our level of comprehension, we cannot listen to it for long. Messages, to be listened to. Must be understood by the receiver. Hard, new or complex messages that fall outside the receiver's intelligence level stand little chance of becoming informational input. We will devote much more attention to a communication exchange and try harder to listen when we feel that the message had some utility to us. When we have a stake in the outcome of the information being transmitted, we are highly motivated to get all the data. Although there is little systematic research to support the point, the author believes that this constitutes a direct, positive relationship. The more important the information is to us, the more energy we will devote to listening to that information. Good communicators try to capture their listeners' attention by providing reasons why this particular message should be important to them. Social climate The social climate tend to influence worker productivity But social climate will also influence listening ability. Let us assume that you greatly admire the man who works next to you at your station. This man is an expert in one phase of the operation of the department, and your boss has assigned you the task of learning this phase. If you like this man, have confidence that he is indeed an expert, and feel that he is being honest with you, you will probably devote dome energy to listening to what he is saying. If you do not like him or have confidence in him, you will probably not listen to what he says. Another far more subtle aspect of the social climate also influences listening. In some organizations (departments, units) the atmosphere encourages people to perform to the utmost of their abilities. In other organizations very little is expected of members. We can call the first kind of organization task centered and the second nontask centered. In the task-centered organization, the attitude of supervision and peers is "Let's get the job done effectively." The climate in these organizations is conducive to good message receiving. You are expected to listen well. In the nontask-centered organization, the prevailing attitude might be "We don't give a darn." You are expected not to listen to any job-related information unless it is absolutely necessary.. In short, the social climate will influence the amount of energy the individual exerts to receive job-related information. Sender's ability to send information, people vary in their native ability to transmit information. We would expect to be able to listen to a skilled sender more easily than to an unskilled one. Occasionally, we man find ourselves obliged to depend on very poor senders for vital information. When this happen, we are forced to work much harder at listening than we care to. Most of the time the listener is at the mercy of the sender. In the best of all possible worlds, both the listener and the sender would be perfect communicators. Of course, this eldom happens. Under daily pressures, even good communicators sometimes compromise by becoming sloppy. There is hope, however. As you work to improve your own communication skills, you will make it easier for others around you to receive the information you are trying to transfer. The more sensitive you are to your own communication responsibilities, the easier your listener's task becomes. Receiver's ability to listen, This may be the most important trait in the model. An especially skilled listener can overcome any barrier to effective listening. But most of us are not exceptional listeners. Such factors as native intelligence, personal skills, and personality will influence our ability to listen. Since there are so many potential negative influences that make effective listening difficult, the single most important characteristic of good listening is simply the ability to reduce all unnecessary distractions and to concentrate fully on the information being transferred. Receiver's motivation to listen, To be effective listeners, we must want to listen. When we have no stake in the information being sent. When we distrust the source of the information, or when we have difficulty grasping the sender's intent, we may not be motivated to listen. Motivation is based on many interpersonal and organizational factors. People will devote energy to listen when they are motivated to do so. To be motivated, they must generally see an immediate payoff for themselves in the information being sent. As information takes on special meaning to me, I will try harder to grasp it. The perceptive reader has already notice that many of the layers on the organizational model are related to factors that are out of the control of the immediate sender and receiver. Examples are environmental conditions, behavior of supervisors, and the work climate. Therefore it is not always possible to remove all of the potential reasons for poor listening in an organization. Poor listening is a sign of high turnover as well as a dying organization. Work groups are led to believe they have been assigned a piecework rate of pay much higher than they are entitled to , their output drops sharply, and some of them quit; The ratio of treatment to expectation is so important in determining the individual's attitude toward an organization that it often blocks out the objective advantages or disadvantages of his or her situation, such as the air force squadron, were consistently less satisfied with their promotion opportunities than equally qualified soldiers in units where promotions were rare and difficult, such as military police detachments. The investigators' explanation, which seems to fit the facts, was that easy promotions in the air force encouraged airmen to develop expectations that raced ahead of their actual opportunities, while the difficulty of promotion in the military police discouraged everyone from expecting it. A fascination study of clerical workers under two styles of supervision found that an experimental group of clerks who were given considerable autonomy and allowed to work without close supervision had lower morale than a control group of clerks doing simpilar work under very close supervision. Interviews with the clerks in the experimental group disclosed that after they were given increased autonomy and responsibility they thought themselves entitled to higher pay than the clerks in the control group. They were so disgruntled at not receiving it that their output eventually declined to a much lower level than that of the control group. Deleterious effects on morale can be produced quite mechanically by procedures that foster rising expectations and then cut them off. In bureaucracies of the civil service type, skilled craftsmen, white collar employees, and technicians are customarily hired at the bottom of a salary range with provision for annual merit increases, until the top of the range is reached four or five years later. The cessation of the annual increase, with the result that many employees quit the organization within a year or two after reaching the top of their range. Similar effects may be observed among public schoolteachers and, with respect to intangible rewards, among social work volunteers. Indeed, any organization that encourages its rank-and -file participants, or some of them , to expect a continuously rising level of reward is certain to have severe morale problems sooner or later when arithmetical necessity calls a halt to further improvement. In most organizations, high-ranking employees have much more to hope for than rank-and-file employees. Their opportunities for promotion. Remuneration, and honors are more numerous and involve much larger increments. It follows, by the same paradox we pointed out in the case of the airmen and military policemen, that they have more opportunities for disappointment, and that their disappointments are more severe. To just miss becoming executive fice-president is a greater blow than to jus miss promotion to assistant janitor foreman. K However, in most organizations, really severe morale problems are more common in the upper reaches of the hierarchy even though morale is generally correlated with status. The disaffection of a high-ranking employees of an organization may have calamitious consequences, as when many high ranking employees trades with the enemy for a promotion he was denied by his own side. It is up to this point we have spoken of the treatment of individuals and of their reactions. But groups, of course also develop collective expectations and have them frustrated; and the excitement aroused in a group by such an event is amplified by social interaction so that, in many instances, the impact on maoral is entirely disproportionate to the provocation. There is the typical situation in which a well organized group suffers some small deprivation relative to another group but persuades itself, in the ensuing excitement, that its entire stake in the organization is menaced, and overreacts accordingly. Once aroused to a sense of having been unjustly treated, a group is not as easy to pacify as an individual, and when it has been pacified, its more intransigent members will probably continue to nurse their grudges for the next occasion. All this adds up to a powerful incentive for any manager to avoid disappointing subordinates in the distribution of rewards and punishments or, in other words, to deal justly with them in their eyes. The principles of organizational justice are as old as the beginning of time and straightforward, but cannot always be followed in actual situations, inasmuch as it is not always possible to determine who will perceive himself as relatively deprived by a given action.. I know of a candidate for public office who was gravely disaffected by the emphasis that the state organization of her party put on the campaign of a candidate in a neighboring district, even though she herself had participated in a decision to funnel more resources to the other candidate, who was running hard pressed in a close race. Organizations must learn how to deal justly with subordinates, and respect the equality of equals. The most elementary violation of injustice as every schoolteacher, platoon and precinct leader knows is to give unequal treatment to persons or groups who are entitled to equal treatment in a given situation. The key words are in a given situation. In most organizations, hardly any pair of employees can be found who are equal in every way, but it is difficult to find any pair of members who are not equal in some way. The children of a family, being unequal in age and sex, do not expect identical Christmas gifts from their parents, but they doe expect gifts of approximately equal value. The platoon noncoms have first choice of the available rations. The elected official has more political influence than the precinct workers, but the same single vote at the polls. A manager ought never to create gratuitous inequalities between employees or group who have a reasonable expectation of being treated equally in a given situation. Every manager does this some of the time either inadvertently, because of failure to perceive that the assignment of duties or the allocation of resources in a particular way will disturb an existing relationship of equality, or intentionally, because of favoring some people over their equals. In either case, the discrimination is always perceived as unjust and usually perceived as deliberate. The morale of the people who are disfavored invariably suffers, but the morale of those who are favored is not necessarily raised. Providing equal treatment to equals often presents a logistical problem. What is to be done when there are not enough schoolbooks or rifles to go aroung, or when only one messenger can be sent on a mission of special opportunity? The best solutions to such problems are mechanical. Since not distribution of unequal treatment to parties who are entitled to equal treatment can be intrinsically just, you should prudently refuse to be responsible for such a distribution and insist that the allocation be made by chance, as in drawing lots, or by rotation, or in some arbitrary order alphabetically, by serial number, or by seniority, for example Carl Weaver developed one of the most basic, yet comprehensive models of the listening process. This model is reproduced in figure 4-1 as you examine it, you will note that a number of potential stimuli are available to the receiver. These stimuli, to return to the language in the previous models, there's many more messages. There is no possible way for any one individual to listen to all of the potential messages associated with a particular inter action situation. Instead, the receiver goes through the process of selection which potential messages to listen to. In essence this is the concept of selective perception that was alluded to earlier. Because we are all different, the stimuli that you choose to listen to are likely to be different from the stimuli that I choose to listen to. Therefore, even though we may have "heard" the "same" communication, we will each assign it a different significance. Teamwork Breeds communication Teamwork and communication is the essence of a surviving successful organization. Communication and increased teamwork are closely related. There are several characteristics of organizational communication that foster increased teamwork. Communication in situations emphasizing teamwork tends to be open and flexible. This means that teamwork encourages frank and open discussions of employees ideas and contributions. Such discussions are based on the equal status of all team players. Communication in situations emphasizing teamwork is characterized by trust and friendship. Team player have already built up good will and warmth among themselves. Work-related communication is based on mutual regard and honesty. This communication in all situations emphasizing teamwork is highly personal. Since the distinction between work and non work-related issues is blurred, people appear to be comfortable talking about a range of topics. Discussion of personal concerns is encouraged by other team members; this team communication emphasizing teamwork stresses cohesiveness since all team member are working toward the same objective, the interaction builds cohesion among the members. The assumption is that each member is equally important to the success of the team. Most members accept the notion that team success is more important than individual success. There's as ethical dimension of work-team communication Accepting new employees on your team implies acceptance of certain standards of eithical behavior. One of the most basic of these standards is to put the good of the team ahead of personal gain. Just as the successful ball player declares, "I don't care if I score as long as my team wins," so also should the successful team player in the organization adopt the attitude "I don't care who gets the credit as long as we achieve our goal." Team players should set aside hidden agendas in their team actions and avoid advocating positions that might benefit them personally but that would not be best for the team. Team players also have an ethical responsibility to respect the integrity and emotional needs of one another. Everyone's ideas should be treated with respect, and no action should be taken that results in a loss of self-esteem for a member. Finally, each player has an ethical responsibility to promote the team's welfare by contributing his or her best efforts to the team's mission and by refraining from destructive gossip, domination of meetings, and other counterproductive actions. Another important factor must be recognize if organizations are to learn to communicate more effectively: that is learning to communicate more effectively by bridging differences in culture and language among these growing segment of the U.S. population: African-American, Hispanic and Asian employees. Although organizations hold meetings for a variety of reasons, one of the most important reasons is to come to a decision. "Face-to -face meeting expedite decision," Many time, if you have the right people at the meeting, you can get a decision right away. Conducting a meeting with a diverse group of employees, suppliers, or customers requires facilitative leadership. When leading a meeting with people who are not directly under your authority, it is particularly important to help all members feel they are making a contribution. In such situation, you get participants involved even before the meeting is held by soliciting suggestions for the agenda and asking what they want the meeting to accomplish. Meetings tend to evolve when the team is involved. But the leader can bring people back to the desired focus as long as an agenda and common goals have been established up front. There must be some time for every individual to comment, which avoids potential conflict while bringing multiple viewpoints to the group's attention. Most conflict is a result of people wanting to be heard. But no one has the right to monopolize the meeting or jeopardize a productive outcome. You've got to balance people's right to be heard with the larger goal of being productive in a democratic way. As a leader and a participant you must also understand the importance of listening. Sometimes it's difficult to listen without having you response percolating in your mind, but you need to clear your mind and concentrate on what the other person is saying. "My advice?" Treat others the way you would like to be treated.. Nonverbal communication is a good way to convey that you are really listening. For example, sitting with arms folded signals that you're closed, but sitting with arm open and eyes focused on the speaker signals that you're listening and you welcome that person's input. In meetings with participants from other cultures, paying close attention to both verbal and nonverbal communication. Because come people are less emotive in their use of hand gestures, facial expressions, or voice inflection, you really have to be sensitive to the timing of a comment as well as the content and the intensity of the language being used. Taking notes during a meeting helps participants and leaders remember what has been decided and what must be done next. Taking notes during meetings can serve as a checkpoint, because busy people can't remember everything, by taking few minutes at the end of the meeting to recap my notes, one can reinforce what the group has agreed to d, what the next steps are and what the timing will be. A work team in Communication, now what is a team? A team is a group of individuals who depend on one another to accomplish a common objective. Teams are often superior to individuals because they can accomplish more work, and are more creative, have more information available to them, and offer more interpersonal communication dynamics. There is a synergy at work in which the group's total output exceeds the sum of each individual's contribution. On the other hand, teams can waste time, accomplish little work, and create an environment in which interpersonal conflict can rang. As anyone who has ever worked in a group can attest, there is also the danger of social lagging, the psychological term for avoiding individual responsibility in a group setting. Two to seven employees seems to be the most appropriate size range for most effective work teams. Small-team research indicates that five is an ideal size for many teams. Smaller teams often do not have enough diversity of skills and interests to function effectively as a team, whereas larger teams may lack healthy team interaction because just a few people may dominate the discussions. As noted above conflict is a vital segment of a meeting. Conflict is a greatly mis understood facet of group communication. Many group leaders work hard to avoid conflict because they think it detracts from a group's goals. Their attitude is that a group experiencing conflict is not running smoothly and is destined to fail. In act, conflict is what group meetings are all bout. One purpose of collaborating on a projects to ensure that various viewpoints are heard so that agreement as to the most appropriate course of action can emerge. Groups can use conflict productively to generate and test ideas before they are implemented. Rather than indicating that a meeting is disorderly, the presence of conflict indicates that members are actively discussing the issues. If a group does not exhibit conflict by debating ideas or questioning others, there is very little reason for it to exist. The members may as well be working individually. Conflict, then is the essence of group interaction. Competent communicatiors use conflict as a means to determine what is and what is not an acceptable idea or solution. Note, however, that the conflict we are talking about involves debate about issues, not about personalities. Interpersonal conflict can, indeed, have serious negative consequences for work teams, nonetheless, without the conflict there will be no reason for an organization to exit. Conflict is the growth of an organization. Conformity is the flipside of conflict, conformity is agreement with regard to ideas, rules, or principles. Employees may be encouraged to disagree about the definition of a problem or possible solutions, but certain fundamental issues such as how the group should operate should be agreed to by everyone. Although group conformity and group cohesiveness are necessary for successful small-group communication, too much cohesiveness can result in what has been termed groupthink, the barrier to communication that results from as overemphasis on unity, which stifles opposing ideas and the free flow of information The pressure to conform can become so great that negative information and contrary opinions are never even brought out into the open and discussed. Thus, the group loses the advantage of hearing and considering various perspectives. In effective work-team communication, conflict, different opinions, and questions are considered and inevitable and essential part of the collaborative process. Consensus is another aspect that is conducive to a well operated meeting, Consensus does not mean a unanimous vote or even necessarily a majority vote. Consensus means reaching a decision that best reflects the thinking of all team player It is finding a solution that is acceptable enough that the entire team can support it, maybe with a tad of reservation and that no player actively opposes it. Consesus is not necessarily a unanimous vote, or even a majority vote, because in a majority vote only the majority are happy with the end result; people in the minority may have to accept something they don't like at all. Not every decision, of course, needs to have the support of every team player; to push for consensus on every matter would require a tremendous investment of time and energy. The group should decide ahead of time when to push for consensus for example, when reaching decisions that have major effect on the direction of the project or the conduct of the team. Group aquaitenance is necessary, it is difficult to work effectively as a team if the team do not know one another well and are not aware of each workers strengths and weaknesses, styles of working, experiences, attitudes, and the like. Therefore, the first task of most new teams is to get to know one another. For small teams to function effectively, not only the task dimension but alson the social dimension must be considered. Some amount of "small talk" about family, friends, current happenings, and the like before and after the meetings is natural and is conducive to establishing a supportive and open environment. You want to be able to compliment each other without embarrassment and to disagree in other to agree, this call disagreeing without fear. Too often, decisions just happen in a team the group may go along with what they think everyone else wants. Teams should therefore discuss how they will make decisions and should develop operation rules. They should talk about what would be legitimate reasons. For missing a meeting, establish a procedure for informing others of an absence beforehand and of keeping the absent employees informed of what was accomplished at the meeting, and decide what being on time means. In short, give feedback where it is necessary, never view feedback as conflict, it is only part of growing within the organization, groups must develop norms for the team. The single most important skill to have in working through any problem is the ability to give constructive feedback. There are proven methods for giving and receiving criticism that work equally well for giving and receiving praise. Most conficts in groups can be anticipated or prevented if a group spends time developing itself into a team, getting to know one another, establishing ground rules, discussing norms for group behavior, and the like. However, no matter how much planning is done or how conscientiously team members work, conflicts occasionally show up. One of the worst tactics to take is to accept problems blindly. Problems rarely disappear on every person has a right more to the collaborative efforts. Finally, be realistic, don't assume responsibility for the happiness of others. You are responsible for behaving ethically and for treating other group is not to develop life long friendships or to solve other people's time-range or personal their own. However, you would neither overreact nor under act to group problems. Some behaviors are only fleeting disruptions and can be ignored. Others are chronic and disruptive and must be resolved. Think of each problem as a group problem. Groups should avoid the temptation to defuse conflicts by making a scapegoat of one member for example We'd be finished with this report now if John had done his part; you never c can depend on him." Rarely, is one person solely responsible for the success or failure of a group effort. Examine each problem in light of what the group does to encourage or allow the behavior and what the group can do differently to encourage more constructive behavior. Because every member role is a function of group's personality, the group should consider how it help every person contribute more to the collaborative efforts. Finally, be realistic, Don't assume responsibility for the happiness or others, You are responsible for behaving ethically and for treating other group members with respect., but the purpose of the group members with respect, but the purpose of the group is not to develop lifelong friendships or to solve other people's time-management or personal problems. Competent communicators welcome all contributions from group members. Regardless of whether the members agree or disagree with their own views. They evaluate each contribution objectively and respond in a non threatening manner, with comment becomes tense, they make a light comment, laugh , complements, recall previous incidents, or take other helpful actions to actions to restore harmony and move the group forward. If interpersonal conflict appears to be developing into a more or less permanent part of the group interactions, the group should put the topic of conflict on its agenda and then devote sufficient meeting time to discussing and working through the conflict. The increasing complexity of the workplace makes it difficult for any one person to have either the time or the expertise to be able to identify and solve many of the problems that arise and prepare written responses. This situation especially applies with long or complex documents. The differing talents, skills, and perspectives of several individuals are often needed in a joint effort to analyze a given situation and generate proposals or recommendations. Thus, team writing is becoming quite prevalent in organizations In fact, collaborative communication has always been much more common in organizations than many people realized. Draft the document and remember that the goal at this stage is not to prepare a finished product but to draft all of the contents. Assign part to different members. Having each member write a different part of the document provides an equitable distribution of the work and may produce a draft more quickly. You must ensure , however, that each employees is writing in his or her area of expertise and that all have agreed on such style issues as the degree of formality, direct organization, and use of preview and summary. Assign one person to draft the entire document. Assigning one employee presumably the most gifted writer to draft the entire document helps guarantee a more consistent writing style and lessens the risk of serious omissions or duplication. You must. However, provide sufficient guidance to the writer and allow ample time for one person to complete the entire writing task One common pitfall in team writing is the failure to achieve a single voice in the project. Regardless of who prepares each individual part of the report, the final report must look and sound as though it were prepared by one writer. Think or the report as a whole, rather than as a collection of parts. Organize and present the data so that the report comes across as coherent and unified. Not all the communication that occurs on work teams, or on the job in general, is spoken, heard, written, or read that is, verbal. According to management guru The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn't being said. A nonverbal message is any message that is not written or spoken. T nonverbal message may accompany a verbal message or it may occur alone (selection the back seat when entering the conference room for a staff meeting , Nonverbal messages are typically more spontaneous than verbal messages, but that does not mean that they are any less important. One study has shown that only 7% of the meaning communicated by most messages comes from the verbal portion, with the remaining 93% being conveyed nonverbally. By far, the most expressive part of your body is your face especially your eyes, reading facial expressions, In fact, many of these expression have the same meaning across different cultures. Eye contact and eye movements tell you a lot about about a person to whom our'you're speaking is not perceived as important or polite in some cultures. Gestures are hand and upper-body movements that add important information to face-to-face interactions. As the game of charades prove. You can communicate quite a bit without using oral or written signals. More typically, gestures are used to help illustrate and reinforce your verbal message. Body stance posture, placement or arms and legs distribution of weight, and the like is another form of nonverbal communication. For example, leaning slightly toward the person with whom you're communication would probably be taken as a sign of interest and involvement in the interaction., On the other hand, leaning back the with arms folded across the chest might be taken and intended as a sigh of bordom or defiance. The only way to find out what needs to be improved and should be an overall part of the organization's culture. Thus, your team must agree that giving and receiving feedback is an acceptable part of how you will improve the way you work together. This way, no one will be surprise when he or she receives feedback. Toastmaster international public speaking organization was my avenue to successful communication the program's most important aspect is centered around feedback. Toastmaster give both positive and negative feedback, whereas, many organizations take good work for granted and give feedback only when there are problems in communicating. Unfortunately, this habit is counterproductive. People are far more likely to pay attention to your complaints if they have also received you compliments. A friendly environment is the best place to give feedback. Giving honest and effective feedback is easier in an employee-friendly environment. Some organizations let their employees dress as they like on Friday and bring their kids to work Time is set aside every Friday for groupthink, this maybe on a pinic or at the beach Giving and receiving feedback should be part of every team's culture. However, when communicating in diverse environment there is conflict. Paying attention to the needs of others means that we recognize and accept diversity. When we talk about diversity, we mean cultural differences not only in the American and Canadian work force but also in the worldwide marketplace. The United States is a major participant in international business both as a buyer and as a seller. This country is the world's largest importer of goods and services and the world's 'Second largest exporter. The dominant role that the United State that plays world's second largest exporter. The cominant role that the United States that plat in the global economy does not, however, mean that international business matters are handle the American way. Some years ago a book called The Ugly American condemned Americans abroad for their "Let em do it our way or not at all " attitude. When we talk about culture, we mean the customary traits, attitudes, and behaviors of a group of people. Ethnocentrism is the belief that tone's own cultural group is superior. Such and attitude hinders communication, understanding, and good will between trading partners. An attitude of arrogance is not only counterproductive but also unrealistic., considering that the U.S. population represents less than 5% of the world population. Moreover, of the world's countries, the United States is currently fourth in population and is expected to drop to eight place by the year 2050. Another fact of life in international business is that comparatively few American speak a foreign language. Although English is the major language for conducting business worldwide, it would be naïve to assume that it is the other person's responsibility to learn English. Diversity will have profound effects on our lives and will pose a growing challenge for managers. Although it is helpful to be aware of cultural differences, competent communicators recognize that each member of a culture is an individual, with individual needs, perceptions. And experiences, and should be treated as such. Communicating within an organization can be a traversty for many culture, due to the fact there are so many culture differences. Therefore, it should be mandatory for organizations to have group sessions on diversity. Speech for example is a high-stakes ethnic code, a set of clues we use to make instant decisions about strangers. We screen each other's language like soldiers on patrol in a combat zone or a scouting group. You see a youngish black man in a store, You make him, in you mind's eye, walk the walk and talk the talk, even if he is a medical student from Shaker-Heighs, you talk to someone on the phone who speaks standard English, she's white. It's automatic. Language is loaded. Every black Standard-English speaker has stories of making business arrangements on the phone and then surprise getting a different response person. Hurt feelings, and sometimes lawsuits, result. It goes further. Middle-class African Americans who speak mainstream English are sometimes seen as Uncle Toms by other blacks, who may view the very act of such speech as "giving in" to the coercion of white society. Language, like artillery, carries a charge. And we aim it, however unintentionally, at one another's head When we make assumptions about one another on subways and in stores and in offices, much more is at stake than mere speech.. While linguists continue to debate the nature of Ebonics (most agree it is a dialect), the fact remains that it is a form of nonstandard English in a nation in which standard English is the rule. We do children no favors by assigning official status to a vernacular when what they really need beyond their everyday speech, is mastery of the language of the marketplace. Black or white, you can appreciate the history, depth, and beauty of black English while insisting on fluency in standard English. If you are whit, understand that use of black English says no more and no less about the speaker's character than your speech says about yours. If you are black, understand that the same applies to standard English. The Black intellectual, It is a title conferred every day upon individual African Americans without their permission; "Intellectual for black people Everywhere." It bestows the responsibility upon black people, anytime and anywhere, to enlighten well-intentioned nonblacks about the black point of view as in. Why do so many black people feel that they have to justify why other black people are the way they are… What is black people's opinion of ? From the questioners' standpoint, this is all perfectly innocent; when you have few or no black friends and little understanding of black life, you open whatever windows you can. And who better to ask for help than as African American. But that's the problem. You are asking an African American, one person, with one set of experiences, one heart, and one brain. Here he or she is, minding his or her own business on the bus or at work, and suddenly he or she is asked to step in for millions of black folk. The temptation is to snap, "Why are you asking me?" Look, it's not wrong for a well-meaning whit person to seek out a black person's opinion. It's wrong, though, to treat that opinion as anything other than one person's view. The unspoken assumption behind a what-do-black-people-think interrogation is aggravating beyond belief. Imagine the gall of , asy, a foreigner asking a white American "how whit people feel" about antipoverty programs. Which whit people? Forge entirely about gaining any kind of broad knowledge about black folk from talking with one or two people. There are no shortcuts. If you want to know what one black friend thinks about something, ask him or her. If you want to know what a lot of black people think, ask a lot of black people Whatever my color, whatever my history or my communal memory, it comes down to this: Want to know what I think? Ask me and I'll tell you. Want to know what all "people like me" think? Forget it. End of story. Communicating with all types of people is very important if you wish to pursue a career in an organization. The world has gone into a massive transition people are migrating all over the world not only to America. Therefore regardless of whom you're involved with or what the topic is, keep your emotions in check. Listen objectively and empathetically. Be willing to accept new information and new points of view, regardless of whether people or red orange or green, or they mesh with your existing beliefs. Concentrate on the content of the person character and not on ethnicity. Maintain neutrality as long as long as you're communicating and don't jump to conclusion about a person based on background. When you assume this empathetic frame of mind, you will likely find that you will neither completely agree neither completely disagree with every point that is made, and remember that is a true sign of growth within the organization as well as within the group as a whole. Organizations are more interested in how well you perform in your courses or in how well your group perform. When you hear a television commercial, are you more interested in how the product will benefit you or in how you purchase of the product will benefit the group? If you're like most people reading or hearing a message, you conscious or unconscious reaction is likely to be "What's in it for me?" Knowing that this is true provides you with a powerful strategy for structuring you messages to maximize their impact: stress the "you attitude, not the "me" attitude. The You attitude is based on justifying and acknowledging the input of another Distributive Justice is the one of the major aspect of a successful organization.. The sociologists who specialize in the study of organizations have had some interesting debates about the nature of distributive justice. According to one theory, the employees of an organization perceive their treatment as just when the ratio of their efforts to their rewards is the same as the ration of efforts to reward obtained by other people around them, the effort, or "investment" being measured not only by sweat but by seniority, skill, and responsibility. According to the opposing theory, the employees of an organization perceive their rewards as just when the rewards are in line with their rank in the organization and their rank in the organization is in line with their qualification This theoretical controversy is not easily resolved by empirical evidence, although home ingenious laboratory experiments have tried to resolve it. For our present purposes, the points on which the two theories agree are more important than those on which they differ. Both theories say that the people who participate in organizational programs evaluate the rewards and punishments received by other people with whom they compare themselves in various ways. The essence of injustice is to receive less reward or more punishment than one expects on the basis of these comparisons. The key word is expects. "They did not treat me fairly" can generally be translated as My rewards were less than I had reason to expect. The sentiment of injustice springs spontaneously from any serious discrepancy between how the individual expects to be treated by the organization and how he or she is treated. When there is general agreement about what the norms are, the cry of injustice arises whenever the norms seem not to have been followed in a particular case or not to have been uniformly applied. During an organizational crisis, of course, the norms themselves may receive very unequal rewards or punishments for nearly identical action without provoking anyone's sense of injustice, provided that the inequality results from normal policy and procedure and is fully predictable. Indeed, it is probably impossible to discover any organization, no matter how small and simple, that treats its employees so evenhandedly that the reward or punishment elicited by a given action would be the same for every employee. Most organization have complex procedures some explicit and some unconscious for assuring appropriate inequality. These are never so simple as just to give larger rewards and smaller punishments to persons of higher status, although their net effect may tend in that direction. For example, in almost every organization, a public expression to hostility to the organization by a high-ranking employee elicits more punishment than the same expression by low-ranking employee. The legendary Man Without a Country," who was court-martialed and sentenced to lifetime confinement in exile for saying " I wish that I may never see or hear of the United States again," was necessarily an officer; the same comment by a common sailor would have led at most to a reprimand. On the other hand, the use of organizational facilities for private purposes by low-ranking employees of an organization is likely to be severely punished, while the same conduct by someone of high rank would go unrebuked. The individual's expectations are so critical in determining whether that individual perceives his treatment by the organization as just or unjust that a discrepancy in the person's favor may be nearly as demoralizing as one against him. emphasize what the receiver (listeners or reader) wants to now and how he or she will be affected by the message. It requires developing empathy the ability to project your self into another person's position and to understand that person's situation, feeling, motives, and needs. To avoid sounding selfish and interested, focus on others. Adopt the "you" attitude. Understanding the organization is understanding the people who moves the organization, example, Them members' task is to help the organization determine which things are going to be valuable and which things should be avoided as potential hazards. In the following example, Consider a college basketball organization team. The coach knows that he needs to acquire thing: good high school players who can handle college-level work. A top-flight national schedule playing against good teams, and reputation as a spirited and competent team. At the same time, the coach wants to avoid certain things; high school players who flunk out of college, high-pressure alumni who try to pay inducements to players, and slipshod training and practice procedures. The coach is forced to walk a very narrow line. He must try to acquire the things he wants while avoiding the things he does not want. At first, this may seem like a rather easy task for an organization. But it's not all that simple. The organization must have people who can collect information about potential hazards. To collect information, members must interact in a wide variety of contexts. In the example of the college basketball team, the coach who talks only to a potential recruit's high school coach, while avoiding the boy's high school teachers, counselors and, most importantly, his parents, is probably neglecting valuable sources of information. Communication among people who are gaining information about things in the organization helps the organization to determine which things should be acquired. Organizations must acquired individuals who are willing to work as a team as well as a group. In order for an organization to survive is for subordinate to be able to make decision and for managers to give surbordinates the autonomy to communicate his or her ideas. Individuals should be given the opportunity to lead with their strengths, example an individual who write well should be place in a writing position, presentational skills are important in organizational communication, therefore this colleagues skills is needed in the planning or organizing department… In today's organizations, the small group is almost as important as the interview. Modern management techniques have come to emphasize group decision making. Virtually every organization utilizes groups in some form. Such practices as quality circles, team building, and task forces are all attempts to implement group decision making. Employees are encouraged, even demanded to participate in making decisions about their work. Normally, this participation occurs in problem-solving sessions at the workplace. Many of the principles of communication and teamwork are especially relevant to small group interaction. If you are able to practice effective groups, and you are satisfied with your role, your skills will elevate, therefore, you will be a vital intrument of your organazition. Work groups are central to the effective operation of the organization. Therefore, one must develop the skills to interact with other department. Satisfaction is one of the most pertinent aspect of human relation to their organization. When people are unhappy with some aspect of their work situation, they are said to experience job dissatisfaction.. Two important causes of job dissatisfaction are related to communication. First, the worker may thing that he or she does not have adequate information to do the job. Second, interpersonal relations among members of a unit may be poor. Job satisfaction is a very complex area. People enjoy their jobs for many reasons. However, there is little evidence to suggest that good organizational communication will produce satisfied workers, or that satisfied workers will necessarily be productive workers. The two causes of job dissatisfaction identified above can be reduced by communication, however. When the structure of the organization usually through r immediate supervisor has provided us with enough information to enable us to do our job effectively, we feel satisfied. At the more visceral level, we feel satisfied when we like our co-workers and seem to have establish good relationship, as well as teamwork with our co-worker. Managers who encourage subordinates to make their own decision will be most successful. Office Group Assumption Leaving out those few managers who obtain an office by founding a new organization, most new managers are installed as successors to a former manager. An insider who follows a strong predecessor, and outsider who follows a weak predecessor, and an insider who follows a weak predecessor can determine the faith of the organization. The most promising of these situations is that of the outsider who follows a weak predecessor. In that case, the new incumbent is sure of a welcome but is not bound by the predecessor's policy or constrained either to imitate or to aboid the predecessor's style. The least promising situation is that of an insider who follows a strong predecessor, If you imitate the predecessor's style you will appear inadequate or ludicrous to those who knew you in a subordinate capacity, while if you change the style and modify the policies that have been working so well, you will seem foolish and perhaps disloyal. There is no easy way out of this trap. In the long history of hereditary monarch, very few sons of highly successful fathers were successful in turn, except when the son was allowed to assume his duties gradually before the father's disappearance from the scene. Philip 11 of Spain was thus introduced to power by Charles V and Marcus Aurelius by the Emperor Hadrian, two of the rare instances when a great ruler was able to transfer power to an heir without loss of mementum. This solution requires more foresight, good judgment, and generosity on the part of the predecessor than is often to be found. Donald B. Trow's study of executive succession in more than a hundred manufacturing companies found that in a stable, family-owned company in which the manager's son was the potential successor, he was usually regarded as unfit for the job. Without special preparation, the inside successor's best hope is to promise to imitate his great predecessor and then to involve the organization in a conflict, a merger, or some other adventure large enough to change its character. As an insider following a weak predecessor, you may do dairly well if you are the leacer of a rebellious faction that overthrew the old regime and if, upon taking office, you treat the adherents of the old regime decisively, removing them or winning them over, as circumstances allow. Unless you can do one or the other, your term of office will be short and uphappy. An insider succeeding a weak predecessor to whom loyalty is owned is in so hopeless a situation that only luck can solve the problem. The most interesting of the four situations is that of an outsider who follows a strong predecessor. This can work out well or badly, and the outcome is largely determined by the new incumbent. If this is your case, then you should try to develop a personal style that contrasts sharply with the style of your predecessor while retaining most of the policies that have made the organization strong. If your predicessor was a frosty autocrat, you can be friendly and outgoing. If bureaucratic procedures have been previously emphasized, your new style may encourage informality. If the former policies emphasized growth, your new watchwork might be stability. If your predecessor had a strong personal staff, it can be dismantled; if he or worked alone, the time is ripe to recruit assistants. Such actions, baldly de scribed, seem whimsical, but they work in real life, as shown by such excellent case studies of succession as Alvin Goulder's Patterns of industrial Bureaucracy an Robert H. Guest's Organizational Change. The rationale for a dramatic change of styles is partly psychological and partly structural. Psychologically, you, as the successor, cannot haop to excape unfavorable comparison with your successful predicessor unless you appear to be so different as to make comparison difficult. Structurally, you cannot hope to take over the hirerarchy of support that sustained the authority of your predecessor. In order to gain control of the organization, you have to restructure the existing hierarchy and change the distribution of authority and influence in your own favor. You cannot do this by shifting people around on a large scale. You probable lack authority to do so, and even if you have it. You cannot distinguish you potential friends from you potential foes at so early a stage. The existing hierarchy can be more tactfully, and just as effectively, reorganized by modifying a few key goals. If the prison's purpose is shifted from custody to rehabilitation, or the firm's primary interest from sales volume to profitability, or the college moves from selective to open admissions, the key figures of the old regime will inevitably lose influence an be supplanted by people more beholden or loyal to the new regime. The danger in this strategy is that the former group may perceive the threat and organize a mutiny. Whether such a mutiny is actuall attempted and whether it succeeds in overturning the new regime is largely, although not entirely, determined by the timing of the new manager's actions, the topic to which we turn next. The Idling period Nearly every inauguration, from that of the pope or a president down to that of a restraurant manager or a platoon sergeant, is followed by a idling period during which the new incumbent is almost exempt from criticism and his authority is almost unresisted. It can be used either to ratify the existing organizational structure or to introduce sweeping changes, but it cannot be used for both purposes at once. As the new manager you must make this choice very early. You need not announce your choice, but not to make it is a serious error. To make no innovations at all and to carry on exactly in your predecessor's style is a practicable policy if you are an insider who is following a strong predecessor by whom you were trained and sponsored. In the three other situation, the decision to leave well enough alone is highly questionable. The strategy new managers most often choose is to lie low during the idling. Using the respite to arrange furniture and files, choose assistants, study the organization, and meet the people who matter. The theory behind this strategy is that all serious decisions should be deferred until you, as the new incumbent, have enough information to foresee the consequences of any change you make and enough contacts to provide good feedback. The great defect of this strategy is that it wastes the unique opportunity offered by the idling to make major innovations without arousing major resistance. The strategy of lying low during the idling is appropriate for an outsider following a weak predecessor. If such is the case, your situation is so favorable that you need not hurry to establish your control of the organization, while at the same time you have an acute need for information. The same strategy is clearly advantageous for the insider following a strong predecessor. If you enter office with the direct sponsorship of your predecessor, any changes in style or policy that you introduced early in your term of office will be seen as a kind of disloyalty. If you take office on your own, your initial authority will not be sufficient to innovate safely, and any innovetion you attempt may become the occasion of a humiliating setback. Your best hop is to lie low, cultivate friends and supporters, and wait for changes in the organizational climate. The alternative strategy is to use the protection provided by the idling to introduce sweeping changes, including dismissals and reassignments of personnel. This appears to be the optimum strategy for both the outsider who follows a strong predecessor and the insider who follows a weak one, although for somewhat different reasons. The outsider who follows a strong predecessor must establish authority at once or else may never be able to do so. The immunity offered by the honeymoon gives you a chance to demonstrate authority by introducing major changes before the old guard has a chance to begin the mutiny it will inevitably attempt. The only thing that limits your role as a new breed is your ignorance of the organization and the danger that some of your innovations will have disastrous results. You can protect your self against this danger by emphasizing changes of style and general policy and avoiding projects that require detailed implementation. Your reign of terror ought to be highly selective and limited to a small number of potential opponents. The other key figures in the organization, having been edified by these examples, should be encouraged and supported in every possible way. If you are an insider following a weak predecessor you should follow a similar policy during the honeymoon except that, since your position is shakier and your authority more questionable at the beginning, your program of innovation should be as comprehensive as the circumstances allow and should emphasize changes of policy over changes of style. A selective reign of terror is inadvisable for someone already involved in the organization's network of friendships and antagonisms. Either you must attempt to remove all your potential opponents, which will ruin you in nine cases out of ten, or you must try to win then over by forgiving and forgetting past differences, This polic, too, will often be ruinous; but any insider following a weak predecessor is slated for trouble anyway, and the odds, such as they are favor a conciliatory approach. So critical is the honeymoon for a new manager that by the time it ends, either by the accumulation of petty issues or the eruption of a major crisis, your eventual success or failure may be already assured. It is much easier for you to guarantee failure by your own actions than to guarantee success, which is subject to factors outside your control.. Your eventual downfall as a manager is predictable if you hav not secured control of the organization's finances by the end of the honeymoon. The power of the purse is the fundamental prerogative of management in a government. As a newly inaugurated leader who expects to be preoccupied by statesmanship or polyphony you may be shocked to discover that money has become your principal concern and will remain so as long as you remain in charge. It is possible that you rose to office by displaying other abilities, and that you regard finance as the grubby business of bookkeepers and accountants; but you had better recognize that money is what management is mostly about and train yourself quickly to you new trade. There is no way of managing an organization successfully without exerting effective control over its expenditures. Practically speaking, this mean that you, as the new manager of an organization, must study its accounts until you know all about the sources of its funds, how they are kept, how disbursements are authorized and audited, and how much authority you have with respect to each type of transaction . This course of study may be full of sad surprises, either because the organization is less solvent than it appears, or because fiscal control has drifted into other hands and cannot easily be recovered, or because a pattern of fixed expenses inherited from the past or imposed by otsiders limits the scope of managerial action. The unpleasantries, whatever they are, need to be learned, absorbed, and built into the framework of decision-making. Ususlly, when you have done you home work and learned the location the finances you will have to engage in several sharp scuffles to gain possession of them. How to keep them in possession, once secured, is a problem that requires close attention to the table of organization. Organization Table A table of organization is a chart that shows all the positions in an organization and the relationships of authority and responsibility by which they are connected, The trick of describing an organization by such a chart, with its little boxes connected by vertical and horizontal lines, is relatively modern the earliest know example comes from around 1900 but the underlying idea is as old as the pyramids. Nearly every serious discussion of an organization, including the discussion a new manager has with friends or sponsors before accepting the jov, starts by laying out the table of organization. The table of organization does not tell us everything ther is to know about the organizational structure, but no one seriously expects it to do so. Among the omitted details are most of the relationships between people who have no authority or responsibility with respect to each other, but must coordinate their activities anyway. Also omitted by definition are the informal norms which, in every organization, concentrate more authority in certain positions than the table of organization anticipates; and all the personal preferences, alliances and coalitions, exchanges of favors, interferences by outsiders, and customary breaches of the rules that develop in every organization. What the table of organization does include, however, cannot be ignored by a manager without inviting immediate trouble. Nearly every table of organization has distinctive peculiarities not shared by organizations of other types, or even by other organizations of the same type. Being a sort of social machine, it has in most cases been deliberately designed for its functions. Like any other machine, it may be well or badly designed, cumbersome or streamlined, wasteful or economical, modern or antiquated. From the manager's standpoint, a good table of organization is one that makes it difficult. Since you are preoccupied with gaining authority upon taking office, your first review of the table of organization will probably focus on the question of how much authority you are allowed. The proper design of tables of organization is the most controversial topic in modern management theory. The principle points on which experts disagree are; the relative advantages of centralized and decentralized authority; and the desirability of unity of command ("one man,one boss") as xompared to functional supervision; whether any independent authority should be excercised by staff personnel; the relative advantages of directive and participative decision-makeng. Some of these issues are more apparent than real. Nearly all serious students in this field now agree that there is no single form of pyramid or style of leadership that fits all organizations but that, on the contrary, the functions performed ty a given organization must by taken into account to determine whether it will run organizations need more centralization and more decentralization. More direction and more participation, all at the same time. In the discussion that follows, we will consider the table of organization from the special standpoint of the new manager engaged in establishing authority. The first necessity is access to all parts of the organization. The worst possible arrangement is that in which all contact between manager and organization is monitored by a powerful gatekeeper who can manipulate the flow of information upward and downward. Some marvelously inept managers, like Richard Nixon and Ferdinand V11 of Spain, have installed such arrangements on their own initiative. More commonly, a new manager inherits such an arrangement after it has grown up under a weak or careless predecessor. When the outsider appointed to the presidency of the company described in Figure 1 discovers that the comptroller, the general counsel, the research director, and the heads of major operating departments all report to the executive vice-president, he knows that he has only a fighting chance of establishing his authority. In a small organization like a retail store, an elementary school, or a social agency, the manager needs direct contact with and some control over, every member of the organization. In a large organization, direct contact is not feasible, but it should still be possible for the manager to initiate direct communication anywhere in the organization and to punish or reward any individual in it. If these requirements are not met, the organization is partly out of control, but a degree of manageability can be salvaged, it the manager must approve all appointments, promotions, and transfers. When even this limited prerogative is lacking, as in the factories of the French tobacco monopoly. The manager becomes a figurehead with hardly and influence on the enterprise over which he presides The director's role in the plant is small. Production goals are narrowly fixed by the central office. Processes are stable and change is extremely difficult. The director does not have the right either to hire or to fire; he does not even have the right passion workers to various jobs. The only people who are really dependent on him are those in the extremely weak s supervisors' group. His only chance of making his influence felt is to administer the rules in such a way as to diminish the constant squabbling their application brings, and, in that way, to inspire people with more positive attitudes toward production. The organization must be assumed by strong leaders. Managers as well as worker, the fact that their job are so secure as to be scarcely affected by his own performance makes it possible for the director of such an establishment to continue in office with some equanimity. From the manager's standpoint, the people below him in the table or organization can be divided into four groups; personal assistants, headquarters staff, subordinate managers. And the rank-and file. It may help in visualizing the relationship of these four categories if we point out who they are in organizations of different types. Consider the company president shown in Figure 2. His personal assistants include an office manager, three secretaries, two assistants to the president, a receptionist, and a chauffiur; his headquarters staff are the company comptroller, the heads of the legal, personnel, and public relations departments, and the vice-presidents in charge of research and development, marketing and production. The subordinate managers shown in the table are group vice-presidents and presidents of subsidiaries. Lower managers and the rank-and-file are omitted from the table. Now consider a neighborhood church. The minister's personal assistants are his part-time secretary sand his wife; the sexton and the organist are his headquarters staff; the choirmaster and the Sunday school superintendent are subordinate managers. The congregation makes up the rank-and-file. In tiny organizations, two of these roles may be combined in the same person. In a road-mending crew, for example, the timekeeper may be both the foreman's personal assistant and the sole member of his staff, but he will be treated a little differently in each role. The larger the organization, the greater the member of successive layers of management are likely to develop until, in a very large organization like the United States government, most of the people with whom the chief executive deals, even among his personal assistants, have management structures of their own, including personal assistants, a staff, subordinate managers, and a rank-and-file. But this complexity is more apparent than real since, from the standpoint of any manager confronting the table of organization for which he or she is responsible, the same four groups of subordinates appear and present the same kinds of problems. Personal Assistant As you, the new manager, review the table of organization, you must make sure that all your personal assistants are under your direct and exclusive control. They should not be required to report to anyone exclusive control. They should not be required to report to anyone else or even to consult with anyone else except at your direction. Each of them ought to be beholden to you alone for pay and promotion, and subject to dismissal at your discretion. A personal assistance who is too responsive to someone else in the organization poses a threat to even the strongest manager and should not be tolerated for longer than it takes to arrange a replacement. In the medieval French monarchy, the first thing that happened at the accession of a new king was that the former king's chamberlain came before the throne and broke his staff of office. By a sensible custom, he was never reappointed. If it is important that personal assistants be under no obligation to other persons, it is equally important that they not acquire authority over staff officials and subordinate managers. Because they enjoy daily access to you, the manager. Know your secrets, and control our flow of information, personal assistants who are faithful and competent inevitably acquire more power than the table of organization assigns to them. It is one of our principal responsibilities to keep this power in constant check. This can be accomplished by keeping the rank, pay, and perquisites of your personal assistants well below those of other people in the managerial circle and by constant surveillance to make sure they are not abusing their informal authority In absolute monarchies and family-owned businesses, if the man or woman responsible for management lacks talent or inclination for the job, they may delegate their power to a personal assistant a mistress or favorite like Pompadour or Buckingham; a private secretary. The theory behind the rule of personal assistants is that since the power they exercise is illegitimate and universally resented, they remain totally dependent on their patrons and can be dismissed without any trouble whenever the patron's and can be dismissed without any trouble whenever the patron's Enthusiasm cools. The experiment has been tried innumerable times with varied outcomes, but that story would take us too far afield. In the ling run, the practice of ruling through a personal assistant seems to lead either to a revolution that overthrows the regime or to a new xonstitution in which the head of the organization becomes a ceremonial figure and the assistant, as shogun or grand vizier, becomes the legitimate manager. Headquarter Staff The most interesting part of a table of organization from the maner's standpoint, is the section of it close to the top where the responsibilities of the headquarter staff are shown. Your relationships with these key people are usually troublesome, since you are naturally dependent on them for information and advice but their individual interests differ from your own. Each of the dey staff people is the advocate of a specialized approach to the organization's problems, for which they wantmore scope than their colleagues are willing to concede. Each of them is additionally responsible for giving information and advice to subordinate managers, which involves them in permanent conflicts with other staff officials and a potential conflict with you. At this level of the organization, more than at any other, the conflicting principles that enter into organizational decisions seem to be embodied in live protagonists: Mrs Hillary the controller, Mr. Shakeford the lawyer, Mr. Spillared the marketing executive, Dr. Tolls the research director, all with axes to grind. Agood table of organization includes certain specific provision about the staff: First, the major staff officials ought to be clearly unequal in rank, pay, influence, and other status attributes, since if two or more of them are nearly equal, their struggles for predominance will keep the organization in a constant state of turmoil. Second, they ought to meet frequently with the manager as a council or cabinet so that most of their disputes can be resolved by direct interaction or by the persuasion of a majority opinion, If they meet frequently without the manager, they will probably come to perceive him or her as their common enemy. If they do not meet at all, they will use the manager as the rope in their tugs-of-war. In council, the manager's role as chairman makes it possible to encourage a coalition against any malcontent without losing the benefit of the man content's advice, as in the famous case of President Lincoln and Secretary Stanton. Third, the relationships between staff officials and thd subordinate managers should be somewhat ambiguous. On the one hand, the organization cannot control subordinate managers if they are not fully responsive to line authority. On the other hand, even the most decentralized organization requires its departments to conform to certain fixed procedures, and these generally fall within the jurisdiction of the staff. The desirable ambiguity in the staff-ling relationship whereby each party considers itself superior but fears to push the claim too far is secured by a number of conventional devices, Staff officials should be approximately equal in rank and perquiste to the subordinate managers with whom they deal; or perhaps a little lower To make up for the informal perquisites they acquire by proximity to the central authority. The people who carry out staff functions for a subordinate manager should report information to, and receive directives from, the headquarters staff but remain dependent on the subordinate manager for pay and promotion. A subordinate manager should never be required to go through the staff to obtain access to the manager, nor should the manger allow the direct channels of communication to the line to be blocked by staff officials.. Provisions for ambiguity invariably generate some friction between staff and line, but the definite predominance of one party or the other has graver consequences, When the staff is clearly on top, as in many social agencies, managers become grossly inefficient in their efforts to satisfy incompatible demands. When the line clearly dominates the staff, as in some research institues, the organization develops a remarkable capacity to nullify managerial decisions. Subordinate Managers Subordinate managers need to be treated differently from staff officials, so differently that the rules a manager ought to follow are almost but not quite reversed when turning from one group to the other. The constant objective in dealing with staff officials is to keep them from assuming too much responsibility. The constant objective in dealing with subordinate managers is to encourage then to assume as much responsibility as possible. The empirical evidence for this prescription is set fort at length in such books as Rensis Likert's New Patterns of Management The theme in is that the morale and productivity of an operating department can often be improved by giving it more independent responsibility for its part of the organization program. When subordinates are given more autonomy, their emotional commitment to the organizational program often increases in a dramatic way. On the technical sede, their familiarity with operational details often enables then to run a given operation more effectively within broad guidelines than under tight instructions. One paracoxical result is that the manager who gives the fullest possible autonomy to subordinates may find his power over then enhanced rather than diminished, because evaluation of their performance becomes vastly more important to them as their responsibility for that performance increases. This procedure can be carried down through successive levels of the hirerchy to the individual worker, considered as the smallest possible "operational department." On each level, the transfer of decision-making power from the superior to the subordinate increases the subordinate's commitment to his tasks and reinforces, rather than diminishes, the authority of the superior. The secret that under certain conditions the more authority a manager geive asay, the more is left, was discovered by Elton Mayo and his associates a half a century ago. It was the second critical event in the history of scientific management the first was the invention of time-amd-motion analysis by Frederick Taylor a generation earlier. The Mayo discovery has given rise to innumerable innovations in the management of large-scale organizations under such labels as group dynamics, federal decentralization, conferences and committees replaces the ususl chain of command. In others, impersonal measures of productivity are substituted for direct supervision. Several influential movements like group dynamics and sensitivity training have a psychoanalytic flavor; they identify the desire to exercise direct authority as a neurosis and undertake to cure it by group therapy. "Having a position of dominance," is to domenate for the sake of power as well as for the requirements of the job. But, to the extent that dominance is used for personal gratification, a profound sense of guilt ensues, also. The principle that authority can be enhancec by giving it away is central to modern management, but it does have certain limitations that prevent it from being universally applied. In many operation, the need for precise coordination among the parts of an organization is so compelling that it takes precedence over the improvement of morale or productivity. Most large organizations include some operating units that are not fully committed to the organizational program and that are more likely to use an increase of autonomy to sabotage their tasks than to perform them with heightened zeal. Another limitation of the human relations approach is that subordinates as well as managers are capable of learning that the delegation of authority may be used to enhance a manager's power. This is what Peter Drucker calls "psychological despotism." The manipulations of a manager oriented to hrman relations may be resisted as stubbornly as the arm-twisting of an old-fashioned authoritarian. Some workers would rather be ruled by a drillmaster than by a psychiatric social worker.